✎✎✎ Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior
Kluwer Scientific Publishing. Judge, Mike Director. Punishment is Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior as more acceptable than positive reinforcement because "people lack of communication between healthcare professionals they are free to choose to Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior in responsible Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior to avoid punishment" Maag, Analysis Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior the results of the employee surveys Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior no clear patterns, but homosexuality in nazi germany the means of all the supervisors were added, there was a small Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior in job satisfaction ratings. References CDC. Mackall, D. Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior drownings among New York State residents, —
Reading minds through body language - Lynne Franklin - TEDxNaperville
Swimming ability was characterized as beginner, good, advanced, or unknown based on SDOH drowning investigation guidelines. The following cases illustrate each DUBB as a contributing cause of unintentional drowning injury. Intentional hyperventilation. Two advanced-level, adult, male swimmers in good health were performing strenuous exercises to prepare for an advanced military fitness test. After alternating between push-ups and swimming laps, the swimmers began intentional hyperventilation and submersion breath-control exercises. Minutes later, both swimmers were found submerged underwater and not moving. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was administered by lifeguards until emergency medical services personnel arrived. Both men were pronounced dead at the hospital.
Static apnea. A teenage, male swimmer in good health with unknown swimming experience was participating in breath-holding contests and horseplay with friends. The swimmer fell unconscious underwater and his friends alerted lifeguards. Lifeguards were able to resuscitate him. Hypoxic training. An advanced-level, teenage, male swimmer with no preexisting health conditions and experience working as a lifeguard was training for his goal to join the U. Navy Seals. He was observed by pool staff performing breath-holding exercises and underwater lap swimming. He repeatedly submerged himself for extended periods of time, until it was noticed that he was unconscious. Efforts were made by the lifeguards and emergency medical services personnel to resuscitate him.
He was pronounced dead at the hospital. The 16 DUBB cases in New York State during — involved 16 persons, 15 incidents one of which included two persons , and four fatalities. Swimmers were aged 7—47 years, with an average age of 17 years Table. Four cases were associated with hypoxic training, three cases with intentional hyperventilation, and two fatal cases had a combination of both intentional hyperventilation and hypoxic training behaviors. In all four fatalities, the decedents were aged 17—22 years, known to be advanced to expert swimmers, and engaged in intentional hyperventilation. As illustrated in the static apnea incident described previously, half of decedents engaged in a DUBB coactivity multiple behaviors with intentional hyperventilation and underwater lap swimming.
DUBBs differed by both swimming experience and age group. Swimming experience was known for 14 cases. All intentional hyperventilation cases and half of all DUBB incidents involved advanced-level swimmers. Of the 16 drownings, 15 occurred at a pool facility: seven outdoors, seven indoors, and one in a wave pool. The remaining incident occurred in a nonregulated stream. More than half of all DUBB incidents occurred when more than one swimmer was in the pool with the affected swimmer at the time of the incident.
All but one of the incidents at the 15 regulated facilities occurred with a lifeguard on duty and involved a lifeguard rescue attempt. The exception was an incident during which a member of an advanced high school swimming program was practicing hypoxic behavior at his school's private facility before hours of operation. This case series highlights a group of voluntary, dangerous behaviors that contributed to a number of unintentional drownings in New York State.
The findings contribute to drowning prevention research by shifting focus from final outcomes to modifiable behavioral risk factors. DUBBs can lead to drowning in otherwise healthy persons, so incidence of this type of drowning can be prevented with interventions such as improved supervision, regulation, and public education 8. Since , the NYC Health Code requires the posting of prevention-focused signage at permitted bathing establishments, with warnings that intentional hyperventilation and competitive, repetitive, or prolonged underwater swimming or breath-holding can be dangerous. The code also requires that facilities post a pictorial warning sign aimed at younger swimmers, and it expands pool operator responsibilities to include discouraging such DUBBs and updating their site safety plans to prohibit DUBBs unless explicitly permitted under enhanced supervision.
Future intervention activities will include educational efforts to inform parents, coaches, safety officials, and swimmers about the risks for DUBBs. I just celebrated my ten-year blogging anniversary. I started blogging when I was 19, and before that, I regularly posted to public mailing lists, message boards, and Usenet. I grew up with this technology, and I'm part of the generation that should be embarrassed by what we posted.
But I'm not—those posts are part of my past, part of who I am. I look back at the year-old me, and I think, "My, you were foolish. Over time, foolish digital pasts will simply become part of the cultural fabric. Young people today are doing what young people have always done: trying to figure out who they are. By putting themselves in public for others to examine, teens are working through how others' impressions of them align with their self-perceptions.
They adjust their behavior and attitudes based on the reactions they get from those they respect. Today's public impression management is taking place online. Once again, adults are upset by how the younger generation is engaging with new cultural artifacts; this time, it's the Internet. As with all moral panics around teenagers, concern about who might harm the innocent children is coupled with a fear of those children's devilish activities. To complicate matters, many contemporary teens are heavily regulated and restricted while facing excessive pressures to succeed.
The conflicting messages adults convey can be emotionally damaging. Unlike Needs Theory of motivation which focused on internal needs, Reinforcement Theory is based on external conditions. Within the workplace, organizational management theorists look to the environment to explain and control people's behavior. Because of this, it may be easier to motivate a group of workers through external factors such as pay raise, promotion, etc Operant Conditioning, Keeps employees involved.
Installing a schedule of reinforcement, such as a variable interval schedule will keep employees on their toes. The employee does not know exactly when a test or performance review is coming, so they cannot afford to work poorly on a given task Redmond, Easily applied in organization. Reinforcement Theory deals with learned behaviors, therefore it is easy to apply to organizational management. Upon joining a company, workers deal with certain stimuli, responses, and their consequences.
Because the behaviors are rewarded or punished, it can be easy to encourage or change workers' responses by manipulating the stimuli Operant Conditioning, Impressive research support. Reinforcement Theory has had substantial research done in the workplace. This research has shown impressive results due to its focus on observable behaviors. Disregards internal motivation. The reinforcement theory only considers behavior and consequences without considering processes of internal motivation or individual differences Redmond, One main weakness in dealing with Reinforcement Theory is the difficulty to identify rewards or punishments Booth-Butterfield, Each human being is different and unique, and Reinforcement Theory has to take this into account.
A reward that works for one person may not work for someone else. For example, one person may be lacking self-confidence, so higher praise from a manager may act as a reward. If only a raise in pay were the reward in this situation, the lack of self-confidence would still be evident and an increase in productivity would not be present. Hard to apply to complicated forms of behavior. It is not equally reliable in all situations. Using it to impact behaviors involved in complicated task work can be problematic. It is easier to reinforce behavior that applies to a simple task because positive and negative behaviors are easier to keep track of and modify Redmond, Imposes on freewill. The control and manipulation of rewards in order to change behavior is considered unethical by some Redmond, Effectivity often expires.
Even when an acceptable reward or punishment is met, they often become less meaningful over time Booth-Butterfield, The reward of praise seen above, for instance, becomes much less desirable after the person receives a boost in self-confidence. Now, the manager may have to move on to another reward to keep the motivation fresh. Can be complicated. The punishment aspect of Reinforcement Theory can be difficult to apply well. According to Booth-Butterfield , for punishment to be effective, a few guidelines may be required:. Findings and conclusions of behaviorism, to a large extent, are based on research with animals.
Thorndike used cats, Pavlov used dogs, and Skinner - pigeons and rats. Many aspects that are important to human beings, such as problem-solving and thinking process, are not addressed by behaviorism. The emphasis is on the environmental stimuli that modify behavior, not on any internal factors that may be present Funder, Despite the initial success that behaviorism enjoyed, some researchers believed that it ignored many important psychological phenomena. One of the first ones was German Psychologist Wolfgang Kohler.
Kohler believed that animals, specifically chimpanzees, developed insight regarding their situation, thereby developing an understanding regarding their condition. The emphasis here was the immediacy at which the chimpanzees applied their response, as opposed to a more gradual learned behavior. This indicated a comprehension and understanding of stimuli and consequences resulting in immediate responses Kohler, ; Gleitman, Kohler's research on insight applied to behaviorism would eventually lead to the beginnings of social learning theory, as well as some cognitive research Funder, The last guideline - the punishment should be consistent - may be the most important.
If the punishment is not consistent, the employee will not associate his or her error with the punishment. When there is consistency, the employee will try to avoid the punishment by fixing their error and proceeding in the fashion the manager would like. In Conversation with Skinner , he mentions that it is important to identify the desired consequence, which will elicit the desired behavioral response. Ever since Skinner first published his findings in , reinforcement theory has been widely studied and implemented in the industrial setting to decrease the frequency of undesired behavior and increase the frequency of desired behavior.
There are many theories that can be used to assist management in employee motivation. Specifying the desired behavior as objectively as possible. A good manager is a good leader and a good leader is goal oriented. Informing employees of the specific goal in mind, making sure they understand it and keeping them focused on the goal is key to the process. Measuring the current incidence of desired behavior. Before a consequence can be enacted, a manager must keep track of each employee's productivity and quality of work.
Once this baseline is recorded and behaviors are identified, then the reinforcement can begin. With the baseline recorded, it is easier to observe the benefits of using the Behavioral Modification Model. Providing behavioral consequences that reinforce desired behavior. This step involves reinforcing individuals for desired outcomes and providing consequences for undesired outcomes. For example, individuals that are working above the status quo may get a reward for their hard work and those that are below par will see this and be motivated to work harder. Determining the effectiveness of the program by systematically assessing behavioral change. It is important to observe the effectiveness of the applied reinforcement, to determine if reinforcement has been used ineffectively and possibly shed light on a better strategy for next time.
For example, ABC Manufacturing Company found they employed a large number of mothers with small children. When their children got sick the mothers were naturally absent from work. This was affecting productivity within the company. Rather than taking disciplinary action against these employees, the company sought out a solution to the problem and asked the mothers what could be done to avoid this situation in the future. The logical solution was to provide a day care for the employees' children. The company assessed the cost effectiveness and decided to give it a try.
As a result, within a few months of the implementation of this daycare program, absenteeism decreased dramatically and there was a noticeable increase in productivity. Gitman and McDaniel provide an excellent example of how reinforcement may be used in the workplace. According to them, hospitals, for a long time, have been offering surgeons the coveted option of scheduling their elective surgeries in the middle of the week, leaving them time to teach, attend conferences, and take long weekends. A hospital in Springfield, Missouri decided to remedy this scheduling issue by spreading its elective surgeries out over five days, rather than two. The fines went into a pool which rewarded those surgeons who were on time the most.
In this program, the fine for late surgeries would be considered negative punishment because something desirable money was removed negative in order to decrease the unwanted behavior punishment. The monetary reward for being on time the most would be considered positive reinforcement because something desirable money was added positive in order to increase the desirable behavior reinforcement. Another example of reinforcement theory in action is the story of Snowfly, a new company that designs, implements and administers workforce incentive programs. Snowfly's approach to employee motivation follows reinforcement theory and involves four themes: immediate recognition, relevant incentive rewards, accountability, and positive reinforcement Kadlub, Program participants are informed of specific goals they need to achieve and desired behaviors they need to demonstrate.
When employees successfully meet their goals, participant accounts are credited with points or game tokens. The size or type of award the player wins is left up to chance, much like playing the slots in Las Vegas. Unfortunately the applied reinforcement theory of positive punishment or simply punishment D. Hockenbury, has been put into effect much more often than has other forms of reinforcement. Waird, To reduce undesirable behaviors it seems almost natural to deliver a punishment rather than offer a reward. However the behavior that is being reinforced is reducing undesired behavior instead of actually trying to increase desirable behavior Waird, To increase desirable behavior, and ultimately performance in the working environment, Waird suggests the implementation of positive reinforcement as it as directly orientated to desired results.
Waird states the answer is: Yes, positive reinforcement is a critical management skill. In his article " Why Manage Behavior? A Case for Positive Reinforcement" he outlines three considerations for the successful implementation of any positive reinforcement campaign:. Desired levels of performance should be very specifically determined, and once determined, they should be clearly stated. If you do not know how you should be performing, how can you be expected to perform? Rewards for desired performance should be appropriate to the performance, but above all they should be rewarding.
Different people elicit different feelings to different rewards. Ensure that the reward you are providing is actually rewarding to the person that is being rewarded. Rewards should follow desired performance as closely as possible. The connection must be made between the desired performance and the reward. Many people may find it difficult to comprehend increasing desirable behaviors through positive reinforcement systems instead of reducing undesirable behaviors through punishment. However taking the time to positively reinforce people for performing desirable behaviors could lead to more people performing more desirable behaviors, and ultimately lead to a better world Waird, This company had organizational problems such as employees not using the correct sized containers for shipping.
The results were hefty costs in shipping for the company. Managers chose to focus on feedback and positive reinforcement. This allowed managers to specify desired behaviors and praise employees for their improvement and progress. The effect of implementing OB Mod was apparent after one day. Performance increases from 45 percent up to 95 percent standard. While OB Mod can help to motivate a change in behavior within organizations, there are ethical concerns that need to be considered in the use of OB Mod in an organization.
The best interest of the employee is not always considered when the reinforcement strategy is implemented. The OB Mod may benefit the organization by increasing production but may not improve the situation for the employee through personal or professional growth. The second ethical consideration is that of potential manipulation. When the desired behaviors are set in place by the managers, the employees may feel as though they have little or no choice but to follow the behaviors suggested by management.
OB Mod, like other behavior motivation techniques, possesses the potential for misuse Griffin, Moorehead, Analyst Dan Pink discusses current research on workplace motivation, and alternatives to reinforcement theory on Ted. Pink suggests that instead of the positive and negative reinforcement, recent research has shown that intrinsic motivators have shown to be more effective motivators. Instead of organizations instituting financial bonuses carrots or threats of disciplinary action sticks , autonomy, mastery, and purpose have shown to improve motivation, quality of performance, while reducing attrition rates in organizations such as Atlassian and Google "Dan Pink:The puzzle of motivation", Banaji, M. Reinforcement theory. Harvard gazette.
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Kadlub, L. A Little Fun Improves Performance. Northern Colorado Business Report. Kearsley, G. Connectionism E. Kohler, W. The mentality of apes E.Reinforcement Theory Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior clearly in action in this example. Maag, John W. Per reporter, mom has sent a note Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior the children to go to the grandmother 's address and Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior address at The Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior 's Apartments. Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior reward that works for Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior person may not work for someone else. The Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior rate Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior tend Case Study: How-Boyd Behavior be more effective Why Colonialism Is Bad Essay fixed ratio schedules, because they generate a higher rate of response and resist extinction Redmond,