✯✯✯ Passage Of Time

Friday, October 22, 2021 7:12:37 AM

Passage Of Time

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TERMINAL VELOCITY - John Petrucci Solo Album 2020

The Middle Passage was the stage of the Atlantic slave trade in which millions of enslaved Africans [1] were forcibly transported to the Americas as part of the triangular slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods first side of the triangle , which were traded for slaves, as rulers of African states were willing to capture and sell members of other tribes. Slave ships also known as Guineamen transported the human cargo, in wretched conditions, males and females separated, across the Atlantic second side of the triangle. Mortality was high; those with strong bodies survived. Young females were raped by the crew.

The proceeds from sale of the enslaved Africans were then used to buy hides, tobacco, sugar, rum, and raw materials, [2] which would be transported back to northern Europe third side of the triangle to complete the triangle. The First Passage was the forced march of captives future slaves from their inland homes to African ports, such as Elmina , where they were imprisoned until they could be loaded onto a buying ship. The Final Passage was the journey from the port of disembarkation, such as Charleston, South Carolina , to the plantation or other destination where they would be put to work. The Middle Passage across the Atlantic joined these two.

Voyages on the Middle Passage were large financial undertakings, generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals. The "Middle Passage" was considered a time of in-betweenness for those being traded from Africa to America. The close quarters and intentional division of pre-established African communities selling the cargo of enslaved by the ship crew motivated captive Africans to forge bonds of kinship which then created forced transatlantic communities. White colonists in the Americas would purchase the enslaved Africans upon their arrival.

According to modern research, roughly Portuguese and Dutch traders dominated the trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, though by the eighteenth they were supplanted by the British and French. With the growing abolitionist movement in Europe and the Americas , the transatlantic slave trade gradually declined until being fully abolished in the second-half of the 19th century. The duration of the transatlantic voyage varied widely, [2] from one to six months depending on weather conditions.

The journey became more efficient over the centuries; while an average transatlantic journey of the early 16th century lasted several months, by the 19th century the crossing often required fewer than six weeks. It is believed that African kings, warlords and private kidnappers sold captives to Europeans who held several coastal forts. The captives were usually force-marched to these ports along the western coast of Africa, where they were held for sale to the European or American slave traders in the barracoons.

Typical slave ships contained several hundred slaves with about 30 crew members. The male captives were normally chained together in pairs to save space; right leg to the next man's left leg — while the women and children may have had somewhat more room. The chains or hand and leg cuffs were known as bilboes , which were among the many tools of the slave trade, and which were always in short supply. Bilboes were mainly used on men, and they consisted of two iron shackles locked on a post and were usually fastened around the ankles of two men. Slaves were fed one meal a day with water, if at all. When food was scarce, slaveholders would get priority over the slaves. Aboard certain French ships, slaves were brought on deck to periodically receive fresh air.

While female slaves were typically permitted to be on deck more frequently, male slaves would be watched closely to prevent revolt when above deck. Slaves below the decks lived for months in conditions of squalor and indescribable horror. Disease spread and ill health was one of the biggest killers. Mortality rates were high, and death made these conditions below the decks even worse. Even though the corpses were thrown overboard, many crew members avoided going into the hold. The slaves who had already been ill ridden were not always found immediately. Many of the living slaves could have been shackled to someone that was dead for hours and sometimes days.

Most contemporary historians estimate that between 9. The rate of death increased with the length of the voyage, since the incidence of dysentery and of scurvy increased with longer stints at sea as the quality and amount of food and water diminished. In addition to physical sickness, many slaves became too depressed to eat or function efficiently due to loss of freedom, family, security, and their own humanity. The need for profits in the 18th century's Atlantic market economy drove changes in ship designs and in managing human cargo, which included enslaved Africans and the mostly European crew.

Improvements in air flow on board the ships helped to decrease the infamous mortality rate that these ships had become known for throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The new designs that allowed ships to navigate faster and into rivers' mouths ensured access to many more enslaving posts along the West African coast. Therefore, ship captains and investors sought technologies that would protect their human cargo. Throughout the height of the Atlantic slave trade — , slave ships were normally smaller than traditional cargo ships, with most slave ships weighing between and tons.

This equated to about to enslaved Africans on each slave ship, or 1. The English ships of the time normally fell on the larger side of this spectrum and the French on the smaller side. Ships purposely designed to be smaller and more maneuverable were meant to navigate the African coastal rivers into farther inland ports; these ships therefore increased the effects of the slave trade on Africa. Additionally, the ships' sizes increased slightly throughout the s; however the number of enslaved Africans per ship remained the same. This reduction in the ratio of enslaved Africans to ship tonnage was designed to increase the amount of space per person and thus improve the survival chances of everyone on board. These ships also had temporary storage decks which were separated by an open latticework or grate bulkhead , Ship masters would presumably use these chambers to divide enslaved Africans and help prevent mutiny.

Some ships developed by the turn of the 19th century even had ventilation ports built into the sides and between gun ports with hatches to keep inclement weather out. These open deck designs increased airflow and thus helped improve survival rates, diminishing potential investment losses. Another major factor in "cargo protection" was the increase in knowledge of diseases and medicines along with the inclusion of a variety of medicines on the ships. First the Dutch East India Company in the 18th century, followed by some other countries and companies in the late 18th early 19th centuries, realized that the inclusion of surgeons and other medical practitioners aboard their ships was an endeavor that proved too costly for the benefits. So instead of including medical personnel they just stocked the ships with a large variety of medicines; while this was better than no medicines, and given the fact that many crew members at least had some idea of how disease was spread, without the inclusion of medical personnel the mortality rate was still very high in the 18th century.

Slaves' treatment was horrific because the captured African men and women were considered less than human; they were "cargo", or "goods", and treated as such; they were transported for marketing. Women with children were not as desirable for they took up too much space and toddlers were not wanted because of everyday maintenance. Overcrowding combined with malnutrition and disease killed several crew members and around 60 slaves. Bad weather made the Zong' s voyage slow and lack of drinking water became a concern. The crew decided to drown some slaves at sea, to conserve water and allow the owners to collect insurance for lost cargo. About slaves were killed and a number chose to kill themselves in defiance, by jumping into the water willingly.

The Zong incident became fuel for the abolitionist movement and a major court case, as the insurance company refused to compensate for the loss. While slaves were generally kept fed and supplied with drink as healthy slaves were more valuable, if resources ran low on the long, unpredictable voyages, the crew received preferential treatment. Slave punishment and torture was very common, as on the voyage the crew had to turn independent people into obedient slaves.

As a way to counteract disease and suicide attempts, the crew would force the slaves onto the deck of the ship for exercise, usually resulting in beatings because the slaves would be unwilling to dance for them or interact. Slaves resisted in many ways. The two most common types of resistance were refusal to eat and suicide. Suicide was a frequent occurrence, often by refusal of food or medicine or jumping overboard, as well as by a variety of other opportunistic means.

Both suicide and self-starving were prevented as much as possible by slaver crews; slaves were often force-fed or tortured until they ate, though some still managed to starve themselves to death; slaves were kept away from means of suicide, and the sides of the deck were often netted. Often when an uprising failed, the mutineers would jump en masse into the sea. Slaves generally believed that if they jumped overboard, they would be returned to their family and friends in their village or to their ancestors in the afterlife. Suicide by jumping overboard was such a problem that captains had to address it directly in many cases.

They used the sharks that followed the ships as a terror weapon. One captain, who had a rash of suicides on his ship, took a woman and lowered her into the water on a rope, and pulled her out as fast as possible. When she came in view, the sharks had already killed her—and bitten off the lower half of her body. In order to interact with each other on the voyage, slaves created a communication system unbeknownst to Europeans: They would construct choruses on the passages using their voices, bodies, and ships themselves; the hollow design of the ships allowed slaves to use them as percussive instruments and to amplify their songs. While the pandemic has brought more grief and distraught than the good, there still remains a certain melancholy, as with all things that are always changing and ephemeral.

Imagine yourself in the future as you look at these photos. This time is truly life-changing, after all. By memorializing the present, we will be able to turn it into the past. When we look into the past, it makes us anticipate the future. Our memories live on. These photos will go down with historical archives of the world. Most importantly, someday in the future, these photos will remind us and tell the whole world that once upon a time, this happened. We were there. We are witnesses of history. Have you captured a striking and emblematic image of these trying times?

Share your shots through the comments below, or upload them to your LomoHome! We love seeing photo projects pop up even at times of the pandemic. This time we take a look at the many faces of as captured by lofnikolas. This time, we have artist Chiara Dondi tell us her personal tips and tricks on coloring black and white photographs by hand. Buy Now. We dug up some of our favorite shots of old and recent photographs and memories taken on Pride Month, all coming from the analogue treasure trove of the Lomography Community. We're supporting Exposure Toronto in their mission to amplify and highlight Black creatives in the Toronto area. This time, we present photographer Myles Maximme, who tested out our Berlin Kino for a lovely series of portraits.

Discover her latest shots taken with our monochrome films. Capture the world in magnificent monochrome! Photography will always have a place for the old and the new.

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