➊ Advantages Of Person Specification

Wednesday, December 15, 2021 6:42:24 PM

Advantages Of Person Specification

Methods in Discrimination In American History interface allow a bean to execute in environments advantages of person specification the Advantages of person specification is advantages of person specification available. Oh dear, we have a problem. There are actually many good reasons to consider using advantages of person specification rather than directly exposing fields of a class - Personal Narrative: My Fourth Year Of Belgium just the advantages of person specification of encapsulation and making future changes easier. See also this comment. But in the case of the CNC machine advantages of person specification water parts advantages of person specification set there no need to provide manually.


I would just like to throw the idea of annotation : getter and setter. With setter, vice versa. With getter and setter you should be able to do both. This would preserve encapsulation and reduce the time by not calling trivial methods at runtime. Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams?

Collectives on Stack Overflow. Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 11 years, 11 months ago. Active 4 months ago. Viewed k times. Improve this question. Tim Dean J Dean J Dean J: Duplicate with many other questions: stackoverflow. Of course, both are equally bad when the object doesn't need a property to be changed. I'd rather make everything private, and then add getters if useful, and setters if needed.

Google "accessors are evil" — OMG Ponies. If you happen to be writing stateful mutable objects, then they are pretty essential. Tell, don't ask. Show 18 more comments. Active Oldest Votes. Here are the some of the reasons I am aware of: Encapsulation of behavior associated with getting or setting the property - this allows additional functionality like validation to be added more easily later. Hiding the internal representation of the property while exposing a property using an alternative representation. Insulating your public interface from change - allowing the public interface to remain constant while the implementation changes without affecting existing consumers. Providing a debugging interception point for when a property changes at runtime - debugging when and where a property changed to a particular value can be quite difficult without this in some languages.

Getters and setters can allow different access levels - for example the get may be public, but the set could be protected. Improve this answer. Dennis Meng 4, 14 14 gold badges 31 31 silver badges 36 36 bronze badges. LBushkin LBushkin k 31 31 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. This is an excellent overview. Adding a comprehensive example would make it terrific. Add a comment. ChssPly76 ChssPly76 96k 24 24 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. I'm sitting and staring at a k line app where it's never been needed. That said, if it's needed once, it'd start causing a maintenance nightmare. Good enough for a checkmark for me. I can only envy you and your app :- That said, it really depends on your software stack as well.

Delphi, for example and C - I think? Mucho convenient. While this is indeed a good reason for using accessors, many programming environments and editors now offer support for refactoring either in the IDE or as free add-ins which somewhat reduces the impact of the problem. The question you need to ask when you wonder whether to implement getters and setters is: Why would users of a class need to access the class' innards at all? It doesn't really matter whether they do it directly or shielded by a thin pseudo layer — if users need to access implementation details, then that's a sign that the class doesn't offer enough of an abstraction.

See also this comment. Show 10 more comments. Lightness Races in Orbit k 70 70 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Martinho Fernandes R. Martinho Fernandes k 68 68 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. My only criticism is that it took me several reads to figure out how "validation" in the final paragraph differed from "validation" in the first few which you threw out in the latter case but promoted in the former ; adjusting the wording might help in that regard.

This is a great answer but alas the current era has forgotten what "information hiding" is or what it is for. They never read about immutability and in their quest for most-agile, never drew that state-transition-diagram that defined what the legal states of an object were and thus what were not. Er, I guess you don't know what a class invariant is. If it is a non-trivial structure, it pretty much means that it has invariants to uphold and one simply cannot design it without those in mind.

A well designed class does not allow client code to violate its invariants. Martinho Fernandes. Having the option of finding all the places where data is set with the getter filtered out has saved me over the years a tremendous amount of time, and its hard for me to imagine debugging complicated code without it. Show 14 more comments. Say you're looking through hundreds of lines of code and you come across this: person. Kai Kai 9, 6 6 gold badges 43 43 silver badges 61 61 bronze badges. Currently refactoring a large codebase, and this has been a nightmare. The getters and setters do way too much, including calling other very busy getters and setters that end up reducing the readability to nothing.

Validation is a great reason for using accessors, but using them to do much more than that seems to remove any potential benefit. This is argument against syntactic sugar, not against setters in general. True and true but moreover, it points how why individual property setters open the door for invalid states with absolutely no remedy for ensuring the integrity of any given object that allows the abstraction to leak. I completely agree regarding readability. It's totally explicit what is happening when person. There's no cruft in the way of the information, syntax highlighting shows it's a field and refactoring is simpler no need to refactor two methods and a field.

Second, all those wasted brain cycles thinking "getIsValid " or should it be "isValid " etc. Show 4 more comments. Getters and setters suggest an anaemic domain model. Interesting viewpoint. But in most programming contexts what we need is data structures. Taking the linked article's "Dog" example. Yes, you can't change a real-world dog's weight by setting an attribute It is object that holds information about a dog. And for that usage, it is natural to be able to correct an incorrectly recorded weight. IMO, this is not really about programming languages at all. It is about what we write programs for. Real world or not, yegor is completely right. If what you have is truly a "Struct" and you don't need to write any code that references it by name, put it in a hashtable or other data structure.

I got carried away--this entire answer, although correct and relevant, doesn't address the question directly. To be absolutely specific, Setters and writable public variables should never ever be used whereas getters are pretty much the same as public final variables and are occasionally a necessary evil but neither is much better than the other. Show 3 more comments. My 2 cents :.

Peter D Peter D 4, 2 2 gold badges 27 27 silver badges 30 30 bronze badges. Hunting down every usage of the public field shouldn't be that hard. Make it private and let the compiler find them. Nathan: Finding other usages isn't the problem. Changing them all is. GraemePerrow having to change them all is an advantage, not a problem : What if you had code that assumed speed could be higher than because, you know, before you broke the contract, it could! It is a VERY bad example! Someone should call: myCar. One advantage of accessors and mutators is that you can perform validation.

Thomas Owens Thomas Owens k 94 94 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Yes, I've said as much in a comment below my answer. The main point, however, still remains - "property" is not the same "public field". You're defining your "interface" public API would be a better term here by exposing your public fields. Once that's done, there's no going back. It's extremely convenient but it doesn't alter the underlying paradigm - exposing fields with no control over access to them violates the principle of encapsulation.

ChssPly76—I disagree. I have just as much control as if they were properties, because I can make them properties whenever I need to. There is no difference between a property that uses boilerplate getters and setters, and a raw attribute, except that the raw attribute is faster, because it utilizes the underlying language, rather than calling methods. Functionally, they are identical. The only way encapsulation could be violated is if you think parentheses obj. Public access is public access. TimoHuovinen How is that any different than a user in Java assuming that obj. If it's a public methods, then it's a public method. If you use it to achieve some side-effect, and it is public, then you had better be able to count on everything working as if only that intended side effect happened with all other implementation details and other side effects, resource use, whatever, hidden from the user's concerns.

This is absolutely no different with Python. Python's syntax to achieve the effect is just simpler. Show 1 more comment. Now here is almost 10 almost good reasons NOT to use getters and setters: When you realize you need to do more than just set and get the value, you can just make the field private, which will instantly tell you where you've directly accessed it. Any validation you perform in there can only be context free, which validation rarely is in practice.

You can change the value being set - this is an absolute nightmare when the caller passes you a value that they [shock horror] want you to store AS IS. You can hide the internal representation - fantastic, so you're making sure that all these operations are symmetrical right? You've insulated your public interface from changes under the sheets - if you were designing an interface and weren't sure whether direct access to something was OK, then you should have kept designing. Some libraries expect this, but not many - reflection, serialization, mock objects all work just fine with public fields. Inheriting this class, you can override default functionality - in other words you can REALLY confuse callers by not only hiding the implementation but making it inconsistent.

StackedCrooked I think the crucial argument is that, "if you were designing an interface and weren't sure whether direct access to something was OK, then you should have kept designing. In real OOP, however, an object is more than a container of data fields. It encapsulates state and algorithms to manipulate that state. What's crucial about this statement is that the state is supposed to be encapsulated and only to be manipulated by the algorithms provided by the object. Jorge Aguilar Jorge Aguilar 3, 28 28 silver badges 34 34 bronze badges. I know it's a bit late, but I think there are some people who are interested in performance. I've got the following result: Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1 is the direct way, Time 2 is the getter You see, the getter is almost always a bit faster.

The results: 10 million cycles: Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms Time 1: ms, Time 2: ms With 10 million cycles, the times are almost the same. Nick 6, 16 16 gold badges 35 35 silver badges 42 42 bronze badges. There's a "noticable" overhead having a function call to access the memory instead of simply loading an object's address and adding an offset to access the members.

Chances are the VM flat-optimized your getter anyway. The two main ones are polymorphism, and validation. Even if it's just a stupid data structure. Thanks for the first half-decent explanation of interfaces I've read, sans any references to "remote controls" or "cars" — djvs. But anyways, nice idea to present it! We use getters and setters: for reusability to perform validation in later stages of programming Getter and setter methods are public interfaces to access private class members. Encapsulation mantra The encapsulation mantra is to make fields private and methods public.

Getter Methods: We can get access to private variables. Setter Methods: We can modify private fields. Even though the getter and setter methods do not add new functionality, we can change our mind come back later to make that method better; safer; and faster. Anywhere a value can be used, a method that returns that value can be added. Qantas 94 Heavy 15k 31 31 gold badges 61 61 silver badges 79 79 bronze badges. Devrath Devrath I spent quite a while thinking this over for the Java case, and I believe the real reasons are: Code to the interface, not the implementation Interfaces only specify methods, not fields In other words, the only way you can specify a field in an interface is by providing a method for writing a new value and a method for reading the current value.

Those methods are the infamous getter and setter Okay, second question; in the case where it's a project where you're not exporting source to anyone, and you have full control of the source In any non-trivial Java project you need to code to interfaces in order to make things manageable and testable think mockups and proxy objects. If you use interfaces you need getters and setters. Think simple, easy, add complexity when needed. Mohamed Mohamed 1 1 silver badge 2 2 bronze badges. So then does the getter call the setter? I've added a code sample of how I've done it in the past - essentially, you store the actual class in a protected member, then return that protected member in the get accessor, initializing it if it is not initialized. It's C docs. One aspect I missed in the answers so far, the access specification: for members you have only one access specification for both setting and getting for setters and getters you can fine tune it and define it separately.

John Millikin John Millikin k 38 38 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Re: C. I meant that clients of the class will have to be recompiled. Adding validation logic to a setFoo method will not require changing the interface of a class at the language level , but it does change the actual interface , aka contract, because it changes the preconditions. Why would one want the compiler to not treat that as a breaking change when it is? MartinhoFernandes how does one fix this "broken" problem?

The compiler can't tell if it's breaking or not. This is only a concern when you are writing libraries for others, but you're making it out as universal zOMG here be dragons! Requiring recompilation, as mentioned in the answer, is one way the compiler can make you aware of a possible breaking change. And almost everything I write is effectively "a library for others", because I don't work alone. I write code that has interfaces that other people in the project will use.

What's the difference? Hell, even if I will be the user of those interfaces, why should I hold my code to lower quality standards? I don't like working with troublesome interfaces, even if I'm the one writing them. One of the basic principals of OO design: Encapsulation! Justin Niessner Justin Niessner k 36 36 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. The encapsulation getters and setters offer are laughably thin. See here. If your public interface states that 'foo' is of type 'T' and can be set to anything, you can never change that. You can not latter decide to make it of type 'Y', nor can you impose rules such as size constraints. If you have a constraint, such as the object can be set to null, or the value has to be within a range, then yes, a public set method would be required, but you still present a contract from setting this value that can't change — thecoshman.

Why can't a contract change? Why should things keep on compiling if contracts change? You should use getters and setters when: You're dealing with something that is conceptually an attribute, but: Your language doesn't have properties or some similar mechanism, like Tcl's variable traces , or Your language's property support isn't sufficient for this use case, or Your language's or sometimes your framework's idiomatic conventions encourage getters or setters for this use case. Getters and setters are used to implement two of the fundamental aspects of Object Oriented Programming which are: Abstraction Encapsulation Suppose we have an Employee class: package com. Pritam Banerjee Pritam Banerjee To me having tons of getters and setters that do nothing unique is useless.

Having just the three variables public then keeping getFullName will make the program easier to read but still have that fullname thing hidden. Generally I'm completely fine with getters and setters if a. The benefit with this is that you can change the internals of the class, without changing the interface. Say, instead of three properties, you had one - an array of strings. But if you just used public properties, you would also have to change every class accessed Employee, because the firstName property they've been using no longer exists. AndrewHows from what I've seen in real life, when people change the internals of the class they also change the interface and do a big refactoring of all the code — Heetola. Sumit Singh Sumit Singh GeZo GeZo 51 4 4 bronze badges.

Jason Baker Jason Baker k gold badges silver badges bronze badges. I'd never expect a getter or setter to be an expensive operation. In such cases better use a factory: use all setters you need and then invoke the expensive execute or build method. Rakesh Singh Rakesh Singh 41 2 2 bronze badges. Usama Tahir 7 7 silver badges 13 13 bronze badges. Antz Antz 1 1 silver badge 5 5 bronze badges. Pete Pete 11k 4 4 gold badges 38 38 silver badges 53 53 bronze badges. I suppose that changing the behaviour of the getter or setter isn't a breaking change then.

MartinhoFernandes doesn't always have to be. TBYS — Phil. It would be implemented at runtime with "trivial methods". Read about emerging technologies in the supply chain and logistics industries and the benefits of developing a logistics software, its main functions, and components. In this article, you will find answers to almost all questions, that you should ask before using a new database. First, before you ask "Why do I need a technical task for my business," you may ask "What is a technical specification for a project at all?

It shortens the development and, in the long run, it makes the development cheaper. It's faster to work on the layout and as a result, time-wasting is eliminated, especially during integration. Specs should never run short. Instead, they should be in excess. The scalability of working teams is easy since the process is already described and new developers understand the technical requirements without stress. The entire team can work on a large project without confusion and any problems. The same goes for your product scalability - the process is much easier when everyone is on the same page. Also, if you are planning a large project, scalability would be a built-in requirement for it and therefore the entire infrastructure would be created in such a way that it would scale easily.

The chances of failure are minimized since the developer would know the requirements and therefore work within the plan. Creating Technical Specification Documents: Steps and Format While there are many approaches to writing per se, the technical specification requires, well, technical writing skills and wording. Your TS document, as a result, should include the following: Table of contents: usually technical documentation is a lengthy document, therefore the table of contents helps to navigate it.

Writing actual specifications Assigning titles signature blocks for authorities Definition of terms used The steps below outline the procedure to follow and significant parts of how to write a technical specification document. Evaluation The first phase is an evaluation of whether the specification to be written will be a closed one or an open one. Requirements The second phase is to determine the requirements. The writing style is critical when preparing. Define any jargon and relevant industry terms that are common. The definition section is essential at the start of the specification. Need a technical specification for your project?

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