⒈ Lack Of Communication Between Healthcare Professionals
Health care also health-care cross cultural relationships healthcare lack of communication between healthcare professionals the maintenance or improvement of Labyrinth Of Lies Analysis via the preventiondiagnosistreatmentrecovery, or cure lack of communication between healthcare professionals diseaseillnessinjuryand Proctor And Gamble Case Study physical and mental impairments in people. For practical reasons, we excluded non-English papers. Peer Review reports. A few participants expressed that, in some cases, family lack of communication between healthcare professionals carers were not available to take care of the patient at lack of communication between healthcare professionals, and the family cannot support the hour domestic helper in terms of salary or living space. With the information from the social media platforms, patients can increase their lack of communication between healthcare professionals about treatment options. Lack of communication between healthcare professionals company lack of communication between healthcare professionals thus present throughout Lack of communication between healthcare professionals, including in rural areas where medical resources are scarce. Article PubMed Google Scholar Archived from the original on
The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. The full guideline gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance. Recommendation 1. These recommendations apply to all healthcare professionals who prescribe, dispense or review medicines or who have a role in making decisions about medicines with patients. Healthcare professionals are reminded of their duty under the Equality Act to make reasonable adjustments to ensure that all people have the same opportunity for health. Good communication between healthcare professionals and patients is needed for involvement of patients in decisions about medicines and for supporting adherence. Some patients may find it easier to communicate with their healthcare professional than others.
Establish what level of involvement in decision-making the patient would like. Clearly explain the disease or condition and how the medicine will influence this. The discussion should be at the level preferred by the patient. If in the healthcare professional's view this could have an adverse effect, then the information provided to the patient on risks and benefits and the patient's decision should be recorded. To lack capacity patients must: a have an impairment of or disturbance or malfunction of brain and mind, and b demonstrate lack of capacity to:.
More information is available in NICE's guideline on decision-making and mental capacity. If the patient has any allergic or adverse reactions to medicines, these should be noted. Understanding the patient's knowledge, beliefs and concerns about medicines. There is evidence that patients make decisions about medicines based on their understanding of their condition and the possible treatments, their view of their own need for the medicine and their concerns about the medicine.
These may include concerns about becoming dependent on medicines and concerns about adverse effects. Interhospital communications involve information sharing among multiple sites or institutions. This includes transmissions between facilities owned by the same organization and between completely separate health care entities. Moving patients from one facility to another, sending medical records, and transporting vital medical equipment all require clear communication between sites.
However, hospitals often encounter obstacles in communicating effectively with one another. Problems with communication also occur among personnel within the same hospital. Intrahospital communication is any information sharing within a singular institution — whether it involves coordinating room changes, scheduling surgeries, assigning further tests, or even setting up appointments. When doctors, staff, and patients are not effectively sharing information, the efficiency of each process may decrease, potentially resulting in unnecessary costs or even danger to patients. Patient record delays, lack of procedural coordination, and even serious medical errors may all be consequences of poor intrahospital communication.
Each health care system has multiple forms of communication that administrators and staff must be trained to use properly and efficiently. When even one of these communication methods fails, patient safety can be put at risk. A minor printing mistake could lead to incorrect dosages, or incomplete information may keep a doctor from knowing about a crucial allergy. To that end, here are some of the most common ways that hospitals and other health care systems communicate and share information.
Patient records are shared securely via inter- and intrahospital communications. Delays in receiving records can cost hospitals millions of dollars each year in unnecessary expenses. Patient data are used to create a thorough medical history and provide appropriate medical care. The health care industry relies on research to create and improve tools and procedures. However, some third-party researchers — such as those who work for private companies or pharmaceutical labs — are reluctant to share their findings with providers because of competitive pressures in their industries.
Lack of access to the latest research can stall medical advancement, waste funding, and negatively impact health outcomes, according to an article published by Forbes. For health care techniques to evolve, providers must implement communication systems that allow researchers to quickly and easily collaborate, both within the same organization and across multiple organizations.
Intrahospital communication relies heavily on collaboration between colleagues. Patients, lab technicians, doctors, and staff all need to be in constant communication to create a system that operates as smoothly as possible. Inter-colleague collaboration also includes entering information accurately into databases, especially shared ones. Inaccurate communication between departments can lead to errors in database entry, which, in turn, can potentially risk patient safety. Whether publicly or privately funded, hospitals are businesses, and they need to operate as such.
Hospital managers and other leaders must communicate frequently with doctors, staff, and patients. All hospital leaders and managers not only oversee administrative staff and tasks but can also play a vital role in individual patient health care plans. To be effective, they should maintain open lines of communication with those around them and also facilitate information sharing between hospital departments and with other institutions. To answer this question, the paper will address the following: 1 the types of social media use by patients 2 the identified effects of social media use by patient on patients 3 the identified effects on the relationship between patients and their healthcare professionals and 4 the relationship between the effects on patients and healthcare professionals.
By addressing the issue 4 , we attempt to bring together our findings from the issues 2 and 3 and explore linking mechanisms between the effects patients experience and their subsequent link to the effects they experience in relationship with the healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to gain insights in the benefits and challenges of the effects of social media use by patients within the healthcare system and especially the effects on patients and on their relationships with healthcare professionals.
The effects we focus on in this paper can be both causal and reciprocal, but always start with the use of social media by patients. Despite the popularity of social media, there is a confusion about what is exactly meant by the term social media. Therefore, in this paper we use the definition provided in the highly cited paper by Kaplan and Haenlein [ 9 ].
The internet-based applications refer to the different categories of social media, which are blogs, content communities, social networking sites, collaborative projects, virtual game worlds and virtual social worlds. These types of social media are accessible to users to utilize for, among other things, health related reasons. Patients are treated as any person who self-proclaims to be suffering from a certain condition, whether officially diagnosed by a healthcare professional or not. We define healthcare professionals as those who study, advise on or provide preventive, curative, rehabilitative and promotional health services based on an extensive body of theoretical and factual knowledge in diagnosis and treatment of conditions and other health problems [ 10 ].
In order to provide an overview of the different effects of social media use by patients for health related reasons on patients and on their relationships with healthcare professionals, we conducted systematic literature review. The full search string is also included in the Appendix A see Additional file 1. Search options were slightly different for each database. For EBSCO the irrelevant databases were excluded first and no specific search field was selected for one of the three terms. The list of databases is presented in the Appendix B See Additional file 2. Additionally, the option to search only in scholarly peer reviewed journals was used and the publication dates were selected to be after In the year the term Web 2.
On the other hand, we selected topic for all three terms in the Web of Science, which included the titles, abstracts, author keywords, and keywords plus fields of the articles. For an article to be included in the study it had to meet several selection criteria as follows: 1 published in a peer-reviewed journal, 2 written in English, 3 full text available to the researcher, 4 contain primary empirical data, 5 the users of social media are patients, 6 the effects of patients using social media are clearly stated, 7 satisfy established quality criteria. The articles were assessed on their quality by using the standard quality assessment criteria as identified by [ 12 ]. Prior to final screening and selection of the papers, first and second author agreed to independently read abstracts and select the articles that would be included in the study based on the selection criteria.
This helped to reach higher reliability for the inclusion of the articles. Further in the process, the second author consulted the first author whenever there was a doubt whether to include or exclude the article. In addition, regular meetings with the third author also contributed to the overall process of the selection. The resulting papers were characterized by the research aim and the type of research, which is reflected in the Table 1. The papers were further categorized according to the focus of the research question and data. Following this, we looked at our notes on topics that emerged from analysed articles and compared them to earlier literature. In this way, concepts from prior literature helped us to make the sense of data from different articles and categorize them.
A good example for that is the concept of social support, which we used to classify types of use. After analysing the articles in this way, we formulated propositions in the discussion section. The searches were carried out in the period ending on March 17th, The application of the search strategy to the two search engines resulted initially in a total of 1, articles. Within the 1, articles many duplicates were found as well within the search engines as between the search engines.
By removing duplicates the first found article was kept. In this way, we identified and removed duplicates leaving us with 1, articles. The remaining 1, articles were screened on title and abstract with regards to the selection criteria. Whenever we had doubts if an article is relevant or when title and abstract were not clear, we inspected the paper in more details by accessing full article. Additionally, several articles referred to internet use by patients for health related reasons and their effects, but did not specify the effects of social media. Therefore, such articles were removed. Moreover, articles that were written in a language other than English as well as articles that did not comprise primary data or did not elaborate on an effect of patients using social media.
This left us with 22 articles that met our criteria. This assessment tool distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research and provides different quality assessment criteria for each type of research. The criteria are rated on their presence in the respective article and are either completely addressed in the article resulting in 2 points , partly addressed resulting in 1 point , or not addressed resulting in 0 points. This cut-off point for inclusion is relatively liberal according to the authors of the assessment tool [ 12 ]. The article selection process is shown in Fig. The Table 1 provides an overview of 22 articles included in the study. All studies except for three were published in or after Only two out of the 22 articles use a theory or a model to build their research on, namely the concept of masculinity [ 13 ] and the actant model [ 14 ].
The group of articles consists of nine quantitative, seven qualitative and six mixed methods studies. The analysis of articles with regard to the type of social media and conditions is presented in the Appendix D See Additional file 4 , which shows that the 12 articles studied online support communities and most focused on chronic conditions. Other types of social media platforms and conditions were spread among the remaining articles. This section presents findings from 22 articles we included in our study.
First of all, an overview of the extracted findings is presented regarding the types of social media use by patients. Following this, we present the effects of social media use on patients. Subsequently, an overview of the extracted findings regarding effects of social media use by patients on the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals are presented, discussed, and categorized. Our analysis starts with the type of use and motivation for their use of social media. The relationship between patients and healthcare professionals is viewed by the patients as a more clinical one, where healthcare professionals provide expert knowledge about the condition and recommend treatment based on their medical knowledge, but not on their first-hand experience [ 15 ].
Additionally, doctors often have difficulty expressing empathy and that they filter information for the patient, where the patient would rather be informed about all options. Patients also believe that doctors might not be aware of the latest breakthroughs [ 15 ]. Another reason for patients to use social media was to bridge the gap between traditional health information about their condition and everyday life [ 16 ]. In particular, Facebook is seen as an important addition to traditional in-office counselling in improving patient knowledge [ 17 ]. Therefore, the types of social media use by patients as identified in this paper refer to the way in which patients use social media intended to meet an unfulfilled need.
These are identified in the articles are categorized as shown in Table 2 and explained below. Categories represent social support, consisting of emotional, esteem, informational, and network support [ 18 ], and other types of use, which are emotional expression and social comparison. The most common type of social media use by patients for health related reasons that we found is social support. Social support is represented through five different categories and four of these categories were found to be common types of social media use by patients for health related purposes [ 18 ]. These four types, namely emotional support, esteem support, information support, and network support are explained below.
Emotional support. Emotional support helps patients to meet their emotional or affective needs. The use of social media by patients for emotional support was identified in 13 articles. Esteem support. The aim of this type of support is to encourage individuals to take the actions needed to successfully live with their condition. The use of social media by patients for esteem support was identified in seven articles. Information support. In particular, newly diagnosed patients are in a need for a lot of information about their condition and treatment options, which can be provided by patients who have already dealt with the condition for a longer period [ 20 ].
The use of social media by patients for information support was identified in all articles. Network support. Hence, network support is support that reminds people that no matter what situation they are facing, they are not alone. The use of social media by patients for network support was identified in 13 articles. In addition to the social support, we also identified two other types of use, which could not be directly placed under one of the subcategories of social support. These are emotional expression and social comparison. Emotional expression. Emotional expression refers to the unique opportunity provided by social media for patients and other users to express their emotions freely without having to be concerned about the immediate feelings or reactions of those who stand close to them.
Therefore, patients can use social media as a place to express their emotions freely, like, releasing negative emotions [ 24 ]. In contrast to emotional support, which is defined as patients interacting in and receiving communication to meet their affective needs, emotional expression refers to patients expressing their emotions regardless of whether someone will respond. The use of social media by patients for emotional expression was identified in 8 articles. Social comparison. This social comparison can seem to overlap with social support, for instance, when patients compare themselves to peers to recognize that they are not the only person in this situation network support or when patients compare themselves to peers to find out how other people suffer from or cope with the condition esteem support, emotional support, or information support.
However, social comparison was categorized separately as within the articles the authors presented it as a different type of use without specifying the details. The use of social media by patients for social comparison was identified in four articles. In this section the effects of the use of social media by patients for health related reasons are analysed and presented. The most common effect of patients using social media for health related reasons is patient empowerment, which is represented through three categories: enhanced subjective well-being, enhanced psychological well-being, and improved self-management and control.
We also identified four other types of effects, which are less common in our literature review. These are: diminished subjective well-being, loss of privacy, addiction to social media, and being targeted for promotion. Identified categories are presented in Table 3 and explained below. Informational support was the strongest predictor of increased sense of empowerment followed by esteem support and emotional support.
The three subcategories of empowerment, namely enhanced subjective well-being, enhanced psychological well-being, and improved self-management and control, are discussed below. Enhanced subjective well-being. In this paper, enhanced subjective well-being mainly refers to the pleasant emotions patients experience due to their social media use for health related reasons.
The effect enhanced subjective well-being was identified in 12 articles. Enhanced psychological well-being. One of the components affecting psychological well-being is the experience of positive relations with others. It is argued that a central component of mental health is to be in warm, trusting, interpersonal relations [ 33 ]. The effect enhanced psychological well-being was identified in 14 articles. Improved self-management and control. Improved self-management and sense of control refers to the improvement in the capability of patients to better handle their condition. As patients feel better informed, their ability to make decisions on their own improves, which fosters self-management and perceived control over the condition.
Ability to deal with the day-to-day life with the condition also increases, for example due to learning about coping strategies, which also fosters improved self-management and perceived control. The effect of improved self-management and sense of control was identified in 14 articles. In addition to the patient empowerment, several other types of effects of social media use by patients on patients were identified. These are diminished subjective well-being, loss of privacy, being targeted for promotion, and addiction to social media. Diminished subjective well-being. Diminished subjective well-being is opposite of enhanced subjective well-being and indicates an increase in the experience of negative emotions due to the use of social media, such as an increase in feelings of worry and anxiety.
It was identified in six articles. Diminished subjective well-being was the most common found effect of patients using social media for health related reasons. Loss of privacy. Loss of privacy was mentioned in only one article [ 16 ]. It refers to the finding that the patients lose their privacy when they post personal videos on YouTube. Being targeted for promotion. Being targeted for promotion was also mentioned in only one article by [ 16 ]. It refers to the finding that patients who post videos on YouTube can be targets product promotions.
Addiction to social media. Addiction was an effect identified in one article by [ 35 ]. It refers to the finding that sometimes patients experience their social media use for health related reasons to be addictive. As such, it often took the time that they usually spent doing other tasks. The use of social media by patients for health related reasons does not only affect the patients themselves or other patients, but also the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals. In total, nine articles discussed the effects of social media use by patients on the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals, although six out of these nine articles only touch very briefly upon this subject.
The effects of social media use by patients for health related reasons on the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals that have been extracted from the articles are presented in Table 4 and discussed below. The findings presented in Table 4 are divided into categories representing the effects on the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals.
These categories are more equal communication between the patient and healthcare professional, increased switching of doctors, harmonious relationships, and suboptimal interaction between the patient and healthcare professional. The categories are discussed below. Social media use by patients for health related reasons can lead to more equal communication between the patient and healthcare professional. This effect refers to patients feeling more confident in their relationship with the healthcare professional. In total, five articles referred to this effect. With the information from the social media platforms, patients can increase their knowledge about treatment options. Consequently, they are better able to communicate with the healthcare professional as they can better understand their condition [ 36 ].
Hence, patients may feel more confident in their relationship with their physician [ 22 , 23 ]. Patients feel that they are better prepared for consultations as they are more informed about their condition and know better what questions to ask [ 23 ]. Social support received through the use of social media eventually increases the likeliness to form an intention to actively communicate with the doctor during a medical consultation [ 30 ]. Social media use by patients for health related reasons can lead to shorter relationships between healthcare professionals and patients.
For example, negative reactions from physicians to the mentions of social media use by patients made the patients to look for second opinion and even change their doctor [ 1 ]. On the other hand, some patients changed their doctor as a result of online discussion with other patients [ 36 ]. Harmonious relationships between healthcare professionals and patients can be established as social media provide a place for patients to release negative emotions. The effect of harmonious relationships was identified in two articles. Social media provide a place for patients to express their emotions and maintain harmony in the relationship between healthcare professional and patient in offline consultations, which focuses on non-emotional aspects of the disease [ 24 ].
However, it can also be viewed as a missed opportunity, as patients do not empower each other to find alternative treatments [ 14 ]. As patients use social media for health related reasons, this can affect the patient and healthcare professional relationship by leading to suboptimal interaction between the patient and healthcare professional.If viewed as lack of communication between healthcare professionals healthcare procedure, the patient interview is lack of communication between healthcare professionals most commonly used procedure that the clinician will employ. There is evidence lack of communication between healthcare professionals patients make decisions about medicines based on their understanding of their condition and the possible treatments, Point Of View In Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart view of their own need for the medicine and their concerns Case Study: Ajiaco Colombian Bistro the medicine. Healthcare providers must address these social determinates of health through a series of steps that lack of communication between healthcare professionals screening jason and the argonauts ship and providing proactive services, the AHA lack of communication between healthcare professionals. Information is not effectively lack of communication between healthcare professionals on and carers do not have the lack of communication between healthcare professionals to discuss lack of communication between healthcare professionals expectations and worries. Because statistics Ridesharing Services Case Study that over lack of communication between healthcare professionals million Americans have taken time off of their primary lack of communication between healthcare professionals to care for a loved one,  many countries have begun offering programs advantages of person specification as the Consumer Directed Lack of communication between healthcare professionals Assistant Program to allow family members to take care of their loved ones without giving up their entire income.