🔥🔥🔥 Explain How Actions Define Us All
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If your supervisor is involved in the wrongdoing, the human resources department can be an excellent resource for you. Watch the following video about ethics and stop it after each scenario is shown. Discuss what you would do in each situation, then play the rest of the video and watch the suggested action. Discuss the reputation of the following people. What actions has each taken that reflect their reputation? Discuss what you would do in each of the following situations. Is it ethical behavior? You might be wondering how a company provides guidance to all employees about what behavior it expects from them.
Imagine a global company like Wal-Mart, which has over two billion employees worldwide. How do all the employees know what is considered ethical behavior by the company? Can they take as much time as they want for lunch? Are they able to take off as many days as they wish? What expenses qualify for reimbursement? All the policies of a company are included in its employee handbook Written policies of a company as they relate to the ethical actions of its employees. Every company has a highly specific code of ethics governing the actions of its employees. Giving or accepting valuable gifts or entertainment might be construed as an improper attempt to influence the relationship.
The handbook will additionally contain information like the history and goals of the company. Starbucks communicates its expectations in terms of ethics in this handbook called Business Ethics and Compliance: Standards of Business Conduct. While all employee handbooks are slightly different, all include the guidelines and policies that define ethical behavior in that company or organization. Whatever company you end up working for will have its own policies with which you will need to familiarize yourself.
But most companies include the same basic issues that are frequently encountered in sales: conflicts of interest, bribes, and noncompete clauses. The specifics of these policies will vary from company to company, but this section will give you a good idea of what to expect, the meaning of key terms you will encounter, and some sample policies to study. Most companies include a gift and entertainment policy in its employee handbook. IBM has a specific policy that covers these areas. No IBM employee, or any member of his or her immediate family, can accept gratuities or gifts of money from a supplier, customer, or anyone in a business relationship.
Nor can they accept a gift or consideration that could be perceived as having been offered because of the business relationship. No IBM employee can give money or a gift of significant value to a supplier if it could reasonably be viewed as being done to gain a business advantage. If an employee is offered money or a gift of some value by a supplier or if one arrives at their home or office, a manager should be informed immediately. If the gift is perishable, the manager will arrange to donate it to a local charitable organization. Otherwise, it should be returned to the supplier.
Of course, it is an accepted practice to talk business over a meal. So it is perfectly all right to occasionally allow a supplier or customer to pick up the check. Similarly, it frequently is necessary for a supplier, including IBM, to provide education and executive briefings for customers. For instance, transportation in IBM or supplier planes to and from company locations, and lodging and food at company facilities are all right. A violation of these policies may result in termination. A conflict of interest A situation in which a person in a position of power may benefit personally from his actions or influence.
There are four types of conflicts of interest that you may encounter in your career: family interests, gifts, private use of employer property, and moonlighting. Family interests A situation in which a relative has influence over the hiring of a family member. Gifts Something received without compensation or exchange. Gifts are frequently given at the holidays and may include something small like a case of wine or something more extravagant like a trip.
Moonlighting Holding a second job. While that might not sound insidious at first, if you work two jobs in the same field, it is almost inevitable that you will run into ethical problems. Who gets your best ideas? Where does most of your energy go? And if you have inside knowledge of two different corporations, working not to let that information influence you will be terribly difficult. A bribe Money or favor given or promised in order to influence the judgment or conduct of a person in a position of trust; something that serves to induce or influence.
Soliciting, accepting, offering, or giving a bribe is illegal—even if your offer is refused, you are committing a crime. Bribery can take place in many different venues. Pharmaceutical companies attempt to persuade doctors to prescribe their products by buying them meals and giving them pens and other trinkets as well as trips to medical conventions. Business gifts are considered a form of bribery when they are given by someone who could benefit from having influence on a decision maker. For example, if you are the buyer of electronics at Wal-Mart, you are not able to accept any gifts from vendors or prospective vendors as it might appear to influence your buying decisions for the chain.
A noncompete agreement may also prevent former employees from starting their own businesses in the same field. The reasoning behind the CNC is the fear that a former executive could take his insider knowledge and trade secrets Something as a formula which has economic value to a business because it is not generally known or easily discoverable by observation and for which efforts have been made to maintain secrecy. No employer wants to expose its strategy to its competitors.
Noncompete agreements are generally upheld by the courts as long as they contain reasonable limits as to the time period and geographical space—that is, for example, that you may not compete in the state for two years after your termination. Noncompete agreements are not legal in California, although there are still measures in place in that state to protect trade secrets. Information about the internal workings of a company that could only plausibly be gained by working for that company is usually a trade secret.
If you find yourself between jobs and worry about the legality of finding another having signed a noncompete agreement with your previous employer , bear in mind that noncompete agreements are most likely to be enforceable if your new job is strikingly similar to your old job. If you go from the sales department at Target to the advertising department of Kmart, you are probably legally in the clear. Remember that this is only a concern if you have signed a noncompete agreement previously; while noncompete clauses are common, they are not universal. People were dying. I was loyal to a higher order of ethical responsibility. Whistle-blowing, the act of publicly exposing the misconduct of a company or organization, is a courageous act.
But Wigand blew the whistle in order to save thousands of lives. The true story was made into a blockbuster movie in called The Insider. Another famous whistle-blower is Erin Brockovich, whose story was also brought to life on the big screen in the movie of the same name. Of course, whistle-blowing exists on a less grand scale. If you know which of your classmates stole the answer key to an exam and you tell the professor, you have blown the whistle.
At its heart, it is action taken to reveal wrongdoings in hopes of seeing justice done. If you know that crimes are being committed at your place of business, you have to decide for yourself what form that refusal will take: you may simply not commit any crimes yourself, you may try to persuade others to behave ethically, or you may feel that you must resign your position. It will depend on your situation and your personal code of ethics. The ever-changing landscape of technology has created new opportunities to test ethics; spammers, scam artists, and identity thieves have created the need to clearly define legal, and in some cases, ethical behavior online.
An increasing number of cases of fraud committed via social networking sites have taken place. There have been cases of people who create Twitter profiles in the names of other, real people. Louis Cardinals, have both been victims of such hoaxes. If tempted to such behavior yourself, remember: you are what you tweet. One of the best examples of laws being enacted in response to unethical business practices is the Robinson-Patman Act. In , the Clayton Act became the first federal statute to expressly prohibit price discrimination in several forms. Large chain grocery stores used their buying power to negotiate lower prices than smaller, independent grocery stores were offered. The Robinson-Patman Act was passed in , during the Great Depression, as a direct response to that unfair business practice, closing the loophole.
Donald S. When you are working in a different country, or with professionals from other cultures, there may be different ideas as to what is appropriate and ethical. This money is, for example, often used to buy golf club memberships as gifts for people with whom Japanese businessmen and women have valuable working relationships. In Middle Eastern countries, there is a custom of baksheesh , a word that encompasses everything from tipping to alms for a beggar to out-and-out bribery. If you are working in the Middle East, there may be an expectation that you will help to grease the wheels; your supervisor should be able to brief you on company policy in such situations.
Goodwill is goodwill. The proper thing to do is to invite the boss early in the relationship, when nothing is at stake. The same with the Japanese. They believe you should give the gift early, because then it is not a bribe. It is a gift. A way of making a relationship with you before there is any pressure on the relationship. When you need to decline a gift yourself, apologize and explain that company guidelines prohibit your acceptance of the gift. You should then promptly report the gift to your supervisor. Edmondson, by claiming that he had earned degrees he had not and, in one case, a degree not even offered by the college , set the stage for the embarrassing scandal that cost him his job.
Social networking will out you. The Internet has led to professional networks that are incredibly far reaching; your boss may have a connection on LinkedIn to a manager at the company you pretend to have interned for. Use your experience to tell a story about what makes you different and delivers value to your prospective employer. Since you are just beginning your career, your most important jobs can be listed first. Prospective employers want to see evidence that you are hardworking and have done things to distinguish yourself by holding part-time jobs, completing internships, participating in professional organizations, performing community service, and gaining other experiences.
But one thing to remember about entry-level positions in virtually every industry is that none of the hiring companies expects you to come in and do the job from day one. The company will train you to do the job it wants done. References People who will speak on your behalf about your experience, skills, and character. Personal references Family or friends who will speak on your behalf about your character and work ethic. While some prospective employers may accept personal references, you should have at least three professional references available if a prospective employer asks for them. You might be wondering what employers do when they receive your references. This video is helpful to understand exactly what an employer may ask one of your references.
When choosing references, be sure that the people you have in mind have good things to say about you. People with whom you have had a good working relationship can be excellent references. That way you will be able to let them know exactly how much you respect her, and it will give you an opportunity to cement your professional relationship. If she shows any kind of hesitation, you may not want to use her as a reference. When you speak to a prospective reference, be professional and be specific. This is not a situation in which you want to surprise people. Instead, talk with each person; you should personally speak with each person, preferably in person or by phone as opposed to by e-mail. By all means, avoid the group e-mail requesting references.
Explain what the job is that you are applying for and ask for her permission to list her as a reference. Express your gratitude—preferably in a handwritten note, but you must at least send an e-mail and let them know how things turned out. Stay positive and keep in touch with your references. They will appreciate it, and you will keep your professional network strong. When you are asked to provide references, you will need to provide for each reference: full name, mailing address, phone number, e-mail address, employer, job title, e-mail address, and relationship to you. Have the information collected in a professional document see Figure 4. Your references are chosen to be advocates for you—in return for their generosity of spirit, do them the courtesy of asking whether they are still willing to speak well of you.
As you go through classes and internships, collect letters of recommendation Letter written by a professional supervisor, manager, professor, or other professional to testify to the skills and characteristics of a job candidate. When you finish a class in which you did well, ask your professor for a letter of recommendation. When you finish an internship, ask your supervisor. Not only will these letters demonstrate your credibility, they will help to build your confidence. That way you can bring the letters to your interview to demonstrate the support you have from professionals.
This video gives you more insight into using letter of recommendation in addition to your list of references. A reminder that Dr. Now that you have read this chapter, you should be able to understand ethical behavior in selling as well as how to determine what the ethical decision is in a given situation. Following are two roles that are involved in the same selling situation—one role is the customer, and the other is the salesperson. This will give you the opportunity to think about this ethical dilemma from the point of view of both the customer and the salesperson. Read each role carefully along with the discussion questions. Then, be prepared to play either of the roles in class using the concepts covered in this chapter. You may be asked to discuss the roles and do a role play in groups or individually.
Role: Sales rep for Rold Gold, a fine jewelry wholesaler. You are a sales rep for Rold Gold, a jewelry wholesaler that specializes in high-end gold jewelry. The holidays are coming, and one of your best customers, the owner of an independent jewelry store, has sent you an expensive gift in appreciation for all that you have done to help her increase her business over the past year. Role: Owner, Jewels to the World jewelry store. You are the owner of a popular jewelry store. It has been a challenging year given the state of the economy. One of your sales reps has really gone above and beyond the call of duty to help you increase your business throughout the year with extra training, cost reductions, and promotional ideas.
You want to let him know that you appreciate all he does to support your business, so you send him a very generous gift. Nonetheless, you have it sent directly to his home to avoid any appearance of impropriety. Help Creative Commons. Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you. Help a Public School. Previous Chapter. Table of Contents. Next Chapter. Discuss the role of values in ethics. Understand how you define your personal code of ethics. What Is Ethics? Source: FORA. Video Clip What Is Ethics? Source: Steven R. Some characteristics of an ethical company include the following: Respect and fair treatment of employees, customers, investors, vendors, community, and all who have a stake in and come in contact with the organization Honest communication to all stakeholders internally and externally Integrity in all dealings with all stakeholders High standards for personal accountability and ethical behavior Clear communication of internal and external policies to appropriate stakeholders Karen Collins, Exploring Business Nyack, NY: Flat World Knowledge , Ethical Dilemmas in Business Not all behavior that is unethical is illegal.
Figure 4. Corporate Social Responsibility You may choose to shop at companies because of their business practices. Ethical Behavior in Sales One of the most visible positions in any organization in terms of ethics is sales. Just Say No What if your employer asked you to do something that you are not comfortable doing? Most unethical behavior is driven by emotions such as fear, greed, stress, and status. Identify what is causing the behavior but wait until you have some time to reflect. Identify the criteria you are using to make this judgment.
Is the behavior against company policy? Is it against the law? Is it against your personal code of ethics? Seek counsel. Always ask a trusted colleague, supervisor, or human resources representative for advice. Values of Organizations Just like people, organizations have values, too. Character and Its Influence on Selling As you have probably figured out, ethics, values, and missions are all very personal. Build Your Reputation: Be an Industry Expert A great way to build your reputation in a specific industry is to become an industry expert: write a blog, tweet regularly about industry issues, be a guest speaker or panelist at industry conferences or events online or in person.
Billions of people use network protocols daily, whether they know it or not. Every time you use the internet, you leverage network protocols. Though you may not know how network protocols work or how frequently you encounter them, they are necessary for using the internet or digital communications in any capacity. There are thousands of different network protocols, but they all perform one of three primary actions:. Each type is necessary to use network devices swiftly and safely, and they work together to facilitate that usage.
Ad hoc networks establish a connection between two devices without an internet connection. Passive optical networks PONs bring high broadband speeds and fiber to end users' doorsteps. IT pros should know what a PON is and how it can provide network solutions. Communication protocols allow different network devices to communicate with each other. They are used in both analog and digital communications and can be used for important processes, ranging from transferring files between devices to accessing the internet.Answer: Research implications basically refer to impact Explain How Actions Define Us All your research might have on future Explain How Actions Define Us All or policy love the way you lie or the relevant field of interest of your study. In one Explain How Actions Define Us All study, researchers showed children images that were Explain How Actions Define Us All consistent with gender expectations such as a man Explain How Actions Define Us All on a car and woman washing dishes while others saw Explain How Actions Define Us All that were inconsistent with gender Explain How Actions Define Us All a man washing dishes and Lincolns Ethos In The Gettysburg Address woman fixing a Explain How Actions Define Us All. Emmanuel Jals Life As A War Child of the most visible positions in any organization in terms of ethics is sales.