① Lyndon B Johnson Political Courage

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Lyndon B Johnson Political Courage



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President Lyndon B. Johnson's 1967 State of the Union Address, 1/10/67. MP588.

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Ava DuVernay's 'Selma' places No. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved January 24, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 10, December 24, The New York Times. Miami Herald. Archived from the original on December 22, Some Great Society proposals were stalled initiatives from John F. Kennedy 's New Frontier. In the 89th Congress it was estimated that there were 59 liberals and 41 conservatives in the Senate, and liberals and conservatives in the House. While some of the programs have been eliminated or had their funding reduced, many of them, including Medicare , Medicaid , the Older Americans Act and federal education funding, continue to the present.

Unlike the old New Deal , which was a response to a severe financial and economic calamity, the Great Society initiatives came during a period of rapid economic growth. The tax cut also significantly reduced marginal rates in the lower brackets as well as for corporations. Johnson's first public reference to the "Great Society" took place during a speech to students on May 7, , at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio :. And with your courage and with your compassion and your desire, we will build a Great Society. It is a society where no child will go unfed, and no youngster will go unschooled.

He later formally presented his specific goals for the Great Society in another speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan , on May 22, We are going to assemble the best thought and broadest knowledge from all over the world to find these answers. I intend to establish working groups to prepare a series of conferences and meetings—on the cities, on natural beauty, on the quality of education, and on other emerging challenges.

From these studies, we will begin to set our course toward the Great Society. Almost immediately after the Ann Arbor speech, 14 separate task forces began studying nearly all major aspects of United States society under the guidance of presidential assistants Bill Moyers and Richard N. After the task force reports were submitted to the White House, Moyers began a second round of review. The recommendations were circulated among the agencies concerned, and strategies were developed for getting the proposed legislation through Congress.

With the exception of the Civil Rights Act of , [15] the Great Society agenda was not a widely discussed issue during the presidential election campaign. Democrats gained enough seats to control more than two-thirds of each chamber in the Eighty-ninth Congress , with a 68—32 margin in the Senate and a — margin in the House of Representatives. Johnson won a large majority of the Jewish vote, a liberal constituency that gave strong support to the Great Society. The political realignment allowed House leaders to alter rules that had allowed Southern Democrats to kill New Frontier and civil rights legislation in committee, which aided efforts to pass Great Society legislation.

It began by enacting long-stalled legislation such as Medicare and federal aid to education and then moved into other areas, including high-speed mass transit, rental supplements, truth in packaging, environmental safety legislation, new provisions for mental health facilities, the Teacher Corps , manpower training, the Head Start program, aid to urban mass transit, a demonstration cities program, a housing act that included rental subsidies, and an act for higher education.

The Naked Society is a book on privacy by Vance Packard. The book argues that changes in technology are encroaching on privacy and could create a society in the future with radically different privacy standards. Packard criticized advertisers' unfettered use of private information to create marketing schemes. He compared a recent Great Society initiative by then-president Lyndon B.

Johnson , the National Data Bank , to the use of information by advertisers and argued for increased data privacy measures to ensure that information did not find its way into the wrong hands. The essay led Congress to create the Special Subcommittee on the Invasion of Privacy and inspired privacy advocates such as Neil Gallagher and Sam Ervin to fight what they perceived as Johnson's flagrant disregard for consumer privacy. Ervin criticized Johnson's domestic agenda as invasive and claimed that the unfiltered database of consumers' information as a sign of presidential abuse of power. Ervin warned that "The computer never forgets". Historian Alan Brinkley has suggested that the most important domestic achievement of the Great Society may have been its success in translating some of the demands of the civil rights movement into law.

The Civil Rights Act of [15] forbade job discrimination and the segregation of public accommodations. The Voting Rights Act of assured minority registration and voting. It suspended use of literacy or other voter-qualification tests that had sometimes served to keep African-Americans off voting lists and provided for federal court lawsuits to stop discriminatory poll taxes. It also reinforced the Civil Rights Act of [15] by authorizing the appointment of federal voting examiners in areas that did not meet voter-participation requirements. The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of abolished the national-origin quotas in immigration law. The Civil Rights Act of banned housing discrimination and extended constitutional protections to Native Americans on reservations.

Johnson recognized the benefits and costs of passing civil rights legislation. His support for the Civil Rights Act was despite his personal opinions on racial matters, as Johnson regularly articulated thoughts and disparaging language against racial minorities, including against African-Americans and Asians. The most ambitious and controversial part of the Great Society was its initiative to end poverty. The Kennedy Administration had been contemplating a federal effort against poverty. Johnson, who, as a teacher, had observed extreme poverty in Texas among Mexican-Americans , launched an "unconditional war on poverty" in the first months of his presidency with the goal of eliminating hunger, illiteracy, and unemployment from American life.

Federal funds were provided for special education schemes in slum areas, including help in paying for books and transport, while financial aid was also provided for slum clearances and rebuilding city areas. In addition, the Appalachian Regional Development Act of created jobs in one of the most impoverished regions of the country. The OEO reflected a fragile consensus among policymakers that the best way to deal with poverty was not simply to raise the incomes of the poor but to help them better themselves through education, job training, and community development. Central to its mission was the idea of " community action ", the participation of the poor in framing and administering the programs designed to help them.

It gave rise to dozens of programs, among them the Job Corps , whose purpose was to help disadvantaged youth develop marketable skills; the Neighborhood Youth Corps , established to give poor urban youths work experience and to encourage them to stay in school; Volunteers in Service to America VISTA , a domestic version of the Peace Corps , which placed concerned citizens with community-based agencies to work towards empowerment of the poor; the Model Cities Program for urban redevelopment; Upward Bound , which assisted poor high school students entering college; legal services for the poor; and the Food Stamp Act of which expanded the federal food stamp program. Programs included the Community Action Program , which initiated local Community Action Agencies charged with helping the poor become self-sufficient; and Project Head Start , which offered preschool education for poor children.

In addition, funding was provided for the establishment of community health centers to expand access to health care, [24] while major amendments were made to Social Security in and which significantly increased benefits, expanded coverage, and established new programs to combat poverty and raise living standards. It was signed into law on April 11, , less than three months after it was introduced. The Higher Education Facilities Act of , which was signed into law by Johnson a month after becoming president, [28] authorized several times more college aid within a five-year period than had been appropriated under the Land Grant College in a century. It provided better college libraries, ten to twenty new graduate centers, several new technical institutes, classrooms for several hundred thousand students, and twenty-five to thirty new community colleges a year.

This major piece of legislation was followed by the Higher Education Act of , which increased federal money given to universities, created scholarships and low-interest loans for students, and established a national Teacher Corps to provide teachers to poverty-stricken areas of the United States. The Act also began a transition from federally funded institutional assistance to individual student aid.

In , basic improvements in the National Defense Education Act were achieved, and total funds available to educational institutions were increased. The program was extended to include geography, history, reading, English, and civics, and guidance and counseling programs were extended to elementary and public junior high schools. The Bilingual Education Act of offered federal aid to local school districts in assisting them to address the needs of children with limited English-speaking ability until it expired in The Great Society programs also provided support for postgraduate clinical training for both nurses and physicians committed to work with disadvantaged patients in rural and urban health clinics. The Social Security Act of authorized Medicare and provided federal funding for many of the medical costs of older Americans.

In welfare recipients of all ages received medical care through the Medicaid program. Each state administers its own Medicaid program while the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CMS monitors the state-run programs and establishes requirements for service delivery, quality, funding, and eligibility standards. A number of improvements were made to the Social Security program in terms of both coverage and adequacy of benefits. The Tax Adjustment Act of included a provision for special payments under the social security program to certain uninsured individuals aged 72 and over.

In addition, the Social Security Amendments of provided the first major amendments of Medicare. These social security amendments extended the coverage of the program to include certain services previously excluded, simplified reimbursement procedures under both the hospital and medical insurance plans, and facilitated the administrative procedures concerning general enrollment periods. By , the federal government began requiring state health departments to make contraceptives available to all adults who were poor.

Meal programs for low-income senior citizens began in , with the federal government providing funding for "congregate meals" and "home-delivered meals. Johnson promoted the arts in terms of social betterment, not artistic creativity. He typically emphasized qualitative and quantitative goals, especially the power of the arts to improve the quality of life of ordinary Americans and to reduce the inequalities between the haves and the have-nots. Karen Patricia Heath observes that, "Johnson personally was not much interested in the acquisition of knowledge, cultural or otherwise, for its own sake, nor did he have time for art appreciation or meeting with artists.

Lobbying for federally funded arts and humanities support began during the Kennedy Administration. In June , the commission released a report that suggested that the emphasis placed on science endangered the study of the humanities from elementary schools through postgraduate programs. In order to correct the balance, it recommended "the establishment by the President and the Congress of the United States of a National Humanities Foundation. In August , Representative William S. Research legal resources Explore relevant statutes, regulations, Commission actions and court cases.

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