⒈ Medical I Phone Informative Speech

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Medical I Phone Informative Speech



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Medical Marijuana Informative Speech

You could use a humorous anecdote, quotation, or current event. So when looking for humorous attention-getters you want to make sure that the humor is nonoffensive to your audiences and relevant to your speech. The Chamfort quotation could be great for a speech on the ills of modern society, but probably not for a speech on the state of modern religious conflict. The tenth device you may consider to start a speech is to refer to a story about yourself that is relevant for your topic.

Some of the best speeches are ones that come from personal knowledge and experience. If you are an expert or have firsthand experience related to your topic, sharing this information with the audience is a great way to show that you are credible during your attention-getter. For example, if you had a gastric bypass surgery and you wanted to give an informative speech about the procedure, you could introduce your speech in this way:. In the fall of , I decided that it was time that I took my life into my own hands.

After suffering for years with the disease of obesity, I decided to take a leap of faith and get a gastric bypass in an attempt to finally beat the disease. Your speech topic is the purpose of the attention-getter, not the other way around. Another pitfall in using a personal example is that it may be too personal for you to maintain your composure. While this is an extreme example, we strongly recommend that you avoid any material that could get you overly choked up while speaking.

When speakers have an emotional breakdown during their speech, audience members stop listening to the message and become very uncomfortable. The last device we mention for starting a speech is to refer directly to the speaking occasion. This attention-getter is only useful if the speech is being delivered for a specific occasion. Because of its specific nature, this attention-getter is the least likely to be used for speeches being delivered for college courses. In this section, we are going to explore the five remaining parts of an effective introduction: linking to your topic, reasons to listen, stating credibility, thesis statement, and preview. After the attention-getter, the second major part of an introduction is called the link to topic.

The link to topic is the shortest part of an introduction and occurs when a speaker demonstrates how an attention-getting device relates to the topic of a speech. Often the attention-getter and the link to topic are very clear. In this case, the attention-getter clearly flows directly to the topic. However, some attention-getters need further explanation to get to the topic of the speech. For example, both of the anecdote examples the girl falling into the manhole while texting and the boy and the filberts need further explanation to connect clearly to the speech topic i. In this example, the third sentence here explains that the attention-getter was an anecdote that illustrates a real issue.

The fourth sentence then introduces the actual topic of the speech. We are constantly trying to grab so much or do so much that it prevents us from accomplishing our goals. In this example, we added three new sentences to the attention-getter to connect it to the speech topic. Once you have linked an attention-getter to the topic of your speech, you need to explain to your audience why your topic is important.

Sometimes you can include the significance of your topic in the same sentence as your link to the topic, but other times you may need to spell out in one or two sentences why your specific topic is important. Nothing is worse than having to sit through a speech that has nothing to do with you. How would you react to the speaker? Most of us would be pretty annoyed at having had our time wasted in this way. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, credibility is ultimately a perception that is made by your audience. First, to make yourself appear competent, you can either clearly explain to your audience why you are competent about a given subject or demonstrate your competence by showing that you have thoroughly researched a topic by including relevant references within your introduction.

The first method of demonstrating competence—saying it directly—is only effective if you are actually a competent person on a given subject. If you are an undergraduate student and you are delivering a speech about the importance of string theory in physics, unless you are a prodigy of some kind, you are probably not a recognized expert on the subject. Conversely, if your number one hobby in life is collecting memorabilia about the Three Stooges, then you may be an expert about the Three Stooges.

However, you would need to explain to your audience your passion for collecting Three Stooges memorabilia and how this has made you an expert on the topic. If, on the other hand, you are not actually a recognized expert on a topic, you need to demonstrate that you have done your homework to become more knowledgeable than your audience about your topic. The easiest way to demonstrate your competence is through the use of appropriate references from leading thinkers and researchers on your topic.

When you demonstrate to your audience that you have done your homework, they are more likely to view you as competent. The second characteristic of credibility, trustworthiness, is a little more complicated than competence, for it ultimately relies on audience perceptions. One way to increase the likelihood that a speaker will be perceived as trustworthy is to use reputable sources. John Smith, you need to explain who Dr. John Smith is so your audience will see the quotation as being more trustworthy. As speakers we can easily manipulate our sources into appearing more credible than they actually are, which would be unethical. When you are honest about your sources with your audience, they will trust you and your information more so than when you are ambiguous.

The worst thing you can do is to out-and-out lie about information during your speech. Not only is lying highly unethical, but if you are caught lying, your audience will deem you untrustworthy and perceive everything you are saying as untrustworthy. I realize that many of you will disagree with me on this topic. While I may not change all of your minds today, I do ask that you listen with an open mind, set your personal feelings on this topic aside, and judge my arguments on their merits.

While clearly not all audience members will be open or receptive to opening their minds and listening to your arguments, by establishing that there is known disagreement, you are telling the audience that you understand their possible views and are not trying to attack their intellect or their opinions. A thesis statement A short, declarative sentence that states the purpose, intent, or main idea of a speech. A strong, clear thesis statement is very valuable within an introduction because it lays out the basic goal of the entire speech.

We strongly believe that it is worthwhile to invest some time in framing and writing a good thesis statement. You may even want to write your thesis statement before you even begin conducting research for your speech. While you may end up rewriting your thesis statement later, having a clear idea of your purpose, intent, or main idea before you start searching for research will help you focus on the most appropriate material.

To help us understand thesis statements, we will first explore their basic functions and then discuss how to write a thesis statement. With a good thesis statement you will fulfill four basic functions: you express your specific purpose, provide a way to organize your main points, make your research more effective, and enhance your delivery. To orient your audience, you need to be as clear as possible about your meaning. A strong thesis will prepare your audience effectively for the points that will follow. Here are two examples:. The strong statement not only specifies plagiarism but also states your specific concern loss of creative learning interaction.

A thesis statement should appear, almost verbatim, toward the end of the introduction to a speech. A thesis statement helps the audience get ready to listen to the arrangement of points that follow. Many speakers say that if they can create a strong thesis sentence, the rest of the speech tends to develop with relative ease. On the other hand, when the thesis statement is not very clear, creating a speech is an uphill battle. When your thesis statement is sufficiently clear and decisive, you will know where you stand about your topic and where you intend to go with your speech. Having a clear thesis statement is especially important if you know a great deal about your topic or you have strong feelings about it.

If this is the case for you, you need to know exactly what you are planning on talking about in order to fit within specified time limitations. Knowing where you are and where you are going is the entire point in establishing a thesis statement; it makes your speech much easier to prepare and to present. Chances are your list is too long and has no focus. Using your thesis statement, you can select only the information that 1 is directly related to the thesis and 2 can be arranged in a sequence that will make sense to the audience and will support the thesis.

In essence, a strong thesis statement helps you keep useful information and weed out less useful information. If you begin your research with only a general topic in mind, you run the risk of spending hours reading mountains of excellent literature about your topic. However, mountains of literature do not always make coherent speeches. You may have little or no idea of how to tie your research all together, or even whether you should tie it together. If, on the other hand, you conduct your research with a clear thesis statement in mind, you will be better able to zero in only on material that directly relates to your chosen thesis statement.

Many traffic accidents involve drivers older than fifty-five. While this statement may be true, you could find industrial, medical, insurance literature that can drone on ad infinitum about the details of all such accidents in just one year. Instead, focusing your thesis statement will help you narrow the scope of information you will be searching for while gathering information. Three factors contribute to most accidents involving drivers over fifty-five years of age: failing eyesight, slower reflexes, and rapidly changing traffic conditions. This framing is somewhat better. This thesis statement at least provides three possible main points and some keywords for your electronic catalog search. However, if you want your audience to understand the context of older people at the wheel, consider something like:.

Mature drivers over fifty-five years of age must cope with more challenging driving conditions than existed only one generation ago: more traffic moving at higher speeds, the increased imperative for quick driving decisions, and rapidly changing ramp and cloverleaf systems. Because of these challenges, I want my audience to believe that drivers over the age of sixty-five should be required to pass a driving test every five years. This framing of the thesis provides some interesting choices. First, several terms need to be defined, and these definitions might function surprisingly well in setting the tone of the speech.

Second, the framing of the thesis provides you with a way to describe the specific changes as they have occurred between, say, and How much, and in what ways, have the volume and speed of traffic changed? Why are quick decisions more critical now? Questions like this, suggested by your own thesis statement, can lead to a strong, memorable speech. When your thesis is not clear to you, your listeners will be even more clueless than you are—but if you have a good clear thesis statement, your speech becomes clear to your listeners.

When you stand in front of your audience presenting your introduction, you can vocally emphasize the essence of your speech, expressed as your thesis statement. Many speakers pause for a half second, lower their vocal pitch slightly, slow down a little, and deliberately present the thesis statement, the one sentence that encapsulates its purpose. When this is done effectively, the purpose, intent, or main idea of a speech is driven home for an audience.

A thesis statement is related to the general and specific purposes of a speech as we discussed them in Chapter 6 "Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic". The first step in writing a good thesis statement was originally discussed in Chapter 6 "Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic" when we discussed how to find topics. Once you have a general topic, you are ready to go to the second step of creating a thesis statement.

One of the hardest parts of writing a thesis statement is narrowing a speech from a broad topic to one that can be easily covered during a five- to ten-minute speech. While five to ten minutes may sound like a long time to new public speakers, the time flies by very quickly when you are speaking. You can easily run out of time if your topic is too broad. To ascertain if your topic is narrow enough for a specific time frame, ask yourself three questions. First, is your thesis statement narrow or is it a broad overgeneralization of a topic? An overgeneralization occurs when we classify everyone in a specific group as having a specific characteristic. Furthermore, a speaker would have to correctly demonstrate that all members of the organization are militant for the thesis statement to be proven, which is a very difficult task since the National Council of La Raza consists of millions of Hispanic Americans.

A strong thesis statement consists of only a single topic. Instead of a thesis statement that has multiple topics, limit yourself to only one topic. The last question a speaker should ask when making sure a topic is sufficiently narrow is whether the topic has direction. If your basic topic is too broad, you will never have a solid thesis statement or a coherent speech. Do you think President Obama is a role model because of his dedication to civic service? When your topic is too broad, almost anything can become part of the topic.

This ultimately leads to a lack of direction and coherence within the speech itself. To make a cleaner topic, a speaker needs to narrow her or his topic to one specific area. For example, you may want to examine why President Obama is a good speaker. This function only applies if you are giving a speech to persuade. If your topic is informative, your job is to make sure that the thesis statement is nonargumentative and focuses on facts.

On the other hand, if your topic is persuasive, you want to make sure that your argument, viewpoint, or opinion is clearly indicated within the thesis statement. If you are going to argue that Barack Obama is a great speaker, then you should set up this argument within your thesis statement. A thesis statement is something that is constantly tweaked until the speech is given. As your speech develops, often your thesis will need to be rewritten to whatever direction the speech itself has taken.

We often start with a speech going in one direction, and find out through our research that we should have gone in a different direction. When you think you finally have a thesis statement that is good to go for your speech, take a second and make sure it adheres to the criteria shown in Table 9. The final part of an introduction contains a preview of the major points to be covered within your speech. This mileage sign is an indication of what is to come.

A preview works the same way. A preview foreshadows what the main body points will be in the speech. In other words, the first major body point in this speech would examine what workplace bullying is and the types of bullying; the second major body point in this speech would discuss the common characteristics of both workplace bullies and their targets; and lastly, the third body point in this speech would explore some possible solutions to workplace bullying. Thus far, this chapter has focused on how to create a clear introduction.

We discussed why introductions are important and the six important functions of effective introductions. Before we start analyzing the introduction, please read the introduction paragraph that follows. In , the famed science fiction writer Michael Crichton released his book Prey , which was about a swarm of nanomachines that were feeding off living tissue. The nanomachines were solar-powered, self-sufficient, and intelligent. Most disturbingly, the nanomachines could work together as a swarm as it overtook and killed its prey in its need for new resources.

The technology for this level of sophistication in nanotechnology is surprisingly more science fact than science fiction. In , three professors of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California at Berkeley, Professors Kahn, Katz, and Pister, hypothesized in the Journal of Communications and Networks that wireless networks of tiny microelectromechanical sensors, or MEMS: sensors, robots, or devices could detect phenomena including light, temperature, or vibration. To help us understand the small of it all, we will first examine what smart dust is and how it works, we will then examine some military applications of smart dust, and we will end by discussing some nonmilitary applications of smart dust.

The following YouTube videos will show you a wide range of different speeches. While watching these videos, ask yourself the following questions: How have they utilized various attention-getting devices? Have they clearly used all aspects of an introduction? Do they have a strong thesis and preview? How could you have made the introduction stronger? Imagine that you are preparing a speech on the benefits of a new drug, and you find a direct quotation that clearly establishes your argument.

Unfortunately, you soon realize that the source of your quotation is actually a lobbyist who works for the pharmaceutical company that manufactures the drug. You really want to use this quotation as your attention-getter, but you realize that the source is clearly biased. Which of the following options do you think is the most ethical? During a keynote presentation, the speaker mentions that she is the head of neurology at a major medical center. The speaker then goes on to discuss why wearing helmets is important for bicyclists of all ages.

What factor of credibility has the speaker attempted to establish? A kid perched on the roof of his house one day notices a wolf walking by. I just ask that you listen to my arguments with an open mind. What part of an introduction does the following sentence represent? Directions: Use this worksheet to map out the introduction to your next speech. Help Creative Commons. Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you.

Help a Public School. Previous Chapter. Table of Contents. Next Chapter. List and explain the five basic functions of an introduction. Understand how to use three factors of credibility in an introduction. State the Purpose of Your Speech The second major function of an introduction is to reveal the purpose of your speech to your audience. Figure 9. Provide Reasons to Listen The fourth major function of an introduction is to establish a connection between the speaker and the audience, and one of the most effective means of establishing a connection with your audience is to provide them with reasons why they should listen to your speech.

Preview Main Ideas The last major function of an introduction is to preview the main ideas that your speech will discuss. During an introduction, speakers attempt to impart the general and specific purpose of a speech while making their audience members interested in the speech topic, establishing their own credibility, and providing the audience with a preview of the speech structure. At the same time, speakers should strive to be both competent and honest while speaking.

Exercises What are the five basic functions of an introduction? Discuss with your classmates which purpose you think is the most important. How do you plan on establishing a relationship with your audience during your next speech? Of the three factors of credibility, which do you think is going to be hardest to establish with your peers during your next speech? Name some common mistakes speakers make in trying to gain attention. Reference to Subject The first attention-getting method to consider is to tell your audience the subject of your speech.

Reference to Audience The second attention-getting device to consider is a direct reference to the audience. For example, consider this attention-getter for a persuasive speech on frivolous lawsuits: On January 10, , Scott Anthony Gomez Jr. For example, here is an anecdote a speaker could use to begin a speech on how disconnected people are from the real world because of technology: In July , a high school girl named Alexa Longueira was walking along a main boulevard near her home on Staten Island, New York, typing in a message on her cell phone. For the same speech on how disconnected people are with the real world because of technology, the speaker could have used the Fable of The Boy and the Filberts: The ancient Greek writer Aesop told a fable about a boy who put his hand into a pitcher of filberts.

Startling Statement The eighth device you can use to start a speech is to surprise your audience with startling information about your topic. Personal Reference The tenth device you may consider to start a speech is to refer to a story about yourself that is relevant for your topic. For example, if you had a gastric bypass surgery and you wanted to give an informative speech about the procedure, you could introduce your speech in this way: In the fall of , I decided that it was time that I took my life into my own hands. Reference to Occasion The last device we mention for starting a speech is to refer directly to the speaking occasion.

Attention-getters can include references to the audience, quotations, references to current events, historical references, anecdotes, startling statements, questions, humor, personal references, and references to the occasion. Exercises Make a list of the attention-getting devices you might use to give a speech on the importance of recycling. Which do you think would be most effective? Out of the list of ten different possible attention-getting devices discussed in the chapter, how could you use four of them to start your speech? Discuss how you can build your credibility during a speech. Understand how to write a clear thesis statement. Link to Topic After the attention-getter, the second major part of an introduction is called the link to topic.

Reasons to Listen Once you have linked an attention-getter to the topic of your speech, you need to explain to your audience why your topic is important. Thesis Statement A thesis statement A short, declarative sentence that states the purpose, intent, or main idea of a speech. Express Your Specific Purpose To orient your audience, you need to be as clear as possible about your meaning. Provide a Way to Organize Your Main Points A thesis statement should appear, almost verbatim, toward the end of the introduction to a speech.

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