① Low Proficiency In English Language Essay

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Low Proficiency In English Language Essay

Level 2 — Functional Able to communicate in everyday social and Why People Fall Into Drug Addiction Essay workplace situations. Phonology History. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Aarts, Bas; Haegeman, Liliane Apart from your Low Proficiency In English Language Essay of linguistics, you Low Proficiency In English Language Essay leave with the confidence and skills that come from successfully completing a demanding Low Proficiency In English Language Essay and Low Proficiency In English Language Essay fully in university life.

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You can also add an optional contact hour with one of our staff each week and receive additional support with easing into university life. You'll focus on learning how to use the tools of linguistic study. You'll attend large lectures some with over students accompanied by set work to complete. You'll have regular smaller group sessions students which give you the opportunity to discuss your progress, resolve problems and expand upon the set exercises. You'll participate in group presentations and practical sessions in addition to lectures.

You'll also prepare in advance for seminar discussions, which may include library-based research. You'll work with challenging and stimulating primary research papers for some modules. For other modules involving phonetic or grammatical analysis you'll work in the lab. You'll take a primary role in researching and presenting content.

You can choose to write a dissertation, and you'll be supervised by a member of staff for this. Throughout the course you'll typically spend 12 hours per teaching week in the classroom. You should expect to devote at least 30 additional hours a week to independent study, completing set exercises, reading, researching projects, coursework and assessment preparation. You'll have a reading week for independent study twice a year, and you'll receive guidance on your goals for this. These figures are based on an average student in an average week. Your contact hours will vary throughout the year due to your module choices, non-compulsory classes, exam periods and changes to scheduled activities.

Outside your timetabled hours, you'll study independently. This may include preparation for classes, follow-up work, wider reading, practice completion of assessment tasks, or revision. In the UK, full-time students are expected to spend 1, hours a year learning. That's about 40 hours of classes and independent study each week during term time. Everyone learns at a different rate, so the number of hours you spend on independent study will be different to other students on your course. All of our modules have Virtual Learning Environment VLE websites where all crucial materials — reading lists, handouts, discussion boards — are always accessible. Most first-year modules provide additional self-study practice exercises on the VLE.

We have our own departmental e-lab for the teaching and study time of our students. Here you will have access to a variety of resources, including specialist linguistics software, collections of text and speech, and online language-learning materials. Several undergraduate modules are taught in this laboratory and you'll receive training in using these resources. Your contact hours will be on Campus West. Our beautiful green campus offers a student-friendly setting in which to live and study, within easy reach of the action in the city centre. It's easy to get around campus - everything is within walking or pedalling distance, or you can always use the fast and frequent bus service.

You'll complete coursework and exams, ranging from short sets of exercises and extended essays, to group projects where you research and present a topic in a team. Some of our advanced phonetics or phonology modules require spoken oral or listening aural assessments. In most modules, the final mark is made up of the marks for more than one type of assessment. You'll also take formative assessments, which do not count towards your final mark, but offer you feedback on your progress and development.

Types of feedback can include in-class discussion of common problems on a particular assignment, model answers, one-on-one discussion of research projects and online responses on the module discussion board, as well as written feedback on work that you have submitted. We can make appropriate adjustments to assessment procedures for students with disabilities. See the University's disability support pages for further details. Effective communication, critical thinking and project management skills are central to most careers. The study of language and linguistics at York equips you with these skills and others, which translate readily into any work context.

Read more about employability skills. Our graduates have an excellent record of pursuing fulfilling paths after graduation. Learn more about graduate career destinations. Apart from your knowledge of linguistics, you will leave with the confidence and skills that come from successfully completing a demanding course and participating fully in university life. If English isn't your first language you may need to provide evidence of your English language ability. We accept the following qualifications:. For more information see our undergraduate English language requirements. You may be eligible for one of our pre-sessional English language courses. These courses will provide you with the level of English needed to meet the conditions of your offer.

The length of course you need to take depends on your current English language test scores and how much you need to improve to reach our English language requirements. After you've accepted your offer to study at York, we'll confirm which pre-sessional course you should apply to via You York. If you want to study English literature alongside linguistics, see our English and Linguistics course. Launch Experience. Lively, full of culture and beautiful, York is regularly voted one of the best places to live and visit in the UK.

UCAS code Q Institution code Y Length 3 years full-time plus optional placement year. Typical offer AAB full entry requirements. Start date September term dates. Department Department of Language and Linguistic Science. York Virtual Visit Explore our virtual open day experience and find out more about life at York. Discover York. Watch video on YouTube. I learned so much more from my degree than I imagined. I developed transferable skills which made me a strong candidate in the highly competitive global job market. Linguistics — the science of language As linguists we seek to understand the properties shared by all natural human languages: how languages are structured, and how and why they vary and change - how language is acquired, and how it is used by individuals and groups to communicate.

Free online courses Get a taste of university-level study on one of York's free short courses, including our subject course, 'Accents, attitudes and identity'. Learn more. Course content. Study abroad There are opportunities for you to spend time abroad during your course: Explore global opportunities. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 You will gain a grounding in the basic vocabulary and concepts of linguistic theory, which form the bedrock of your future study of the English language. This module will: define academic integrity and academic misconduct explain why and when you should reference source material and other people's work provide interactive exercises to help you to assess whether you've understood the concepts provide answers to FAQs and links to useful resources.

Year 2 In the second year, you'll apply your core analytic knowledge to new types of data in English Language and Linguistics, according to your interests eg regional varieties of English, Teaching English as a Foreign Language, historical development of English. Core modules Introduction to Language Acquisition Taking one of the following two modules is compulsory. Year 3 In your final year, you can choose freely from a wide range of modules. Learning by design Every course at York has been designed to provide clear and ambitious learning outcomes. Students who complete this course will be able to: Apply a thorough and scientifically grounded understanding of the English language in a variety of contexts, including writing, teaching, and solving complex communication-related problems.

Approach with confidence intricate, complex and unfamiliar linguistic phenomena, discern relevant patterns and convey their significance to a variety of audiences. Propose creative and principled solutions to linguistic problems and contribute them effectively to interdisciplinary teams, forming a bridge between humanities and scientific disciplines. Communicate clearly and effectively to specialists and more general audiences, using advanced written and oral skills, the nature and relevance of linguistic questions and controversies, the pivotal significance of language for human cognition, and the ways knowledge of language influences behaviour. Appreciate, engage with, and synthesise arguments from a variety of standpoints, and interrogate your own assumptions, showing clear reasoning and an understanding of linguistic and cultural diversity.

Identify and formulate novel questions and projects and work effectively on them, taking on different roles in a range of work environments. Engage sensitively and perceptively with social, cultural, and political issues where language plays an important role, while highlighting the relevance of linguistic factors in policy-making in a globalised and interconnected world, and especially the role of the English language in a global language community. I liked that in the first year you study a broad range of modules, and then choose option modules in second and third year to build your own degree programme.

Fees and funding. Check your fee status Fees for subsequent years UK home : further increases within the government fee cap will apply in subsequent academic years. We will notify you of any increase as soon as we can. International: fees for international and EU students are subject to annual increases. However, the individual generally speaks in a way that is appropriate to the situation, although command of the spoken language is not always firm. Level 3 — Professional Able to participate effectively in most formal and informal conversations on practical, social, and professional topics. Can discuss particular interests and special fields of competence with considerable ease.

Can use the language to perform such common professional tasks as answering objections, clarifying points, justifying decisions, responding to challenges, supporting opinion, stating and defending policy. Can demonstrate language competence when conducting meetings, delivering briefings or other extended and elaborate monologues, hypothesising, and dealing with unfamiliar subjects and situations. Can reliably elicit information and informed opinion from native speakers. Produces extended discourse and conveys meaning correctly and effectively. Use of structural devices is flexible and elaborate. Speaks readily and in a way that is appropriate to the situation.

Without searching for words or phrases, can use the language clearly and relatively naturally to elaborate on concepts freely and make ideas easily understandable to native speakers. May not fully understand some cultural references, proverbs, and allusions, as well as implications of nuances and idioms, but can easily repair the conversation. Pronunciation may be obviously foreign. Errors may occur in low frequency or highly complex structures characteristic of a formal style of speech.

However, occasional errors in pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary are not serious enough to distort meaning, and rarely disturb the native speaker. Level 4 — Expert Uses the language with great precision, accuracy, and fluency for all professional purposes including the representation of an official policy or point of view. Can perform highly sophisticated language tasks, involving most matters of interest to well-educated native speakers, even in unfamiliar general or professional-specialist situations.

Demonstrates the language skills needed to counsel or persuade others. Can set the tone of both professional and non-professional verbal exchanges with a wide variety of native speakers. Can easily shift subject matter and tone and adjust to such shifts initiated by other speakers. Communicates very effectively with native speakers in situations such as conferen-ces, negotiations, lectures, presentations, briefings, and debates on matters of disagreement.

Can elaborate on abstract concepts and advocate a position at length in these circumstances. Organises discourse well, conveys meaning effectively, and uses stylistically appropriate discourse features. Can express nuances and make culturally appropriate references. Speaks effortlessly and smoothly, with a firm grasp of various levels of style, but would seldom be perceived as a native speaker. Nevertheless, any shortcomings, such as non-native pronunciation, do not interfere with intelligibility.

Level 5 — Highly-articulate native Speaking proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of a highly articulate well-educated native speaker and reflects the cultural standards of the country or areas where the language is natively spoken. The speaker uses the language with great flexibility so that all speech, including vocabulary, idioms, colloquialisms, and cultural references, is accepted as native by well-educated native listeners. Pronunciation is consistent with that of well-educated native speakers of a standard dialect.

Level 0 — No proficiency No practical ability to read the language. Consistently misunderstands or cannot comprehend the written language at all. Level 1 — Survival Can read very simple connected written material, such as unambiguous texts that are directly related to everyday survival or workplace situations. Texts may include short notes; announcements; highly predictable descriptions of people, places, or things; brief explanations of geography, government, and currency systems simplified for non-natives; short sets of instructions and directions application forms, maps, menus, directories, brochures, and simple schedules.

Understands the basic meaning of simple texts containing high frequency structural patterns and vocabulary, including shared international terms and cognates when applicable. Can find some specific details through careful or selective reading. Can often guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from simple context. May be able to identify major topics in some higher level texts. However, may misunderstand even some simple texts. Level 2 — Functional Sufficient comprehension to read simple authentic written material on familiar subjects. Can read straightforward, concrete, factual texts, which may include descriptions of persons, places, and things; and narration about current, past, and future events. Contexts include news items describing frequently recurring events, simple biographical information, social notices, routine business letters, and simple technical material intended for the general reader.

Can read uncomplicated but authentic prose on familiar subjects that are normally presented in a predictable sequence that aids the reader in understanding. Can locate and understand the main ideas and details in material written for the general reader and can answer factual questions about such texts. Cannot draw inferences directly from the text or understand the subtleties of language surrounding factual material. Can readily understand prose that is predominately constructed in high frequency sentence patterns. While active vocabulary may not be broad, the reader can use contextual and real-world cues to understand texts.

May be slow in performing this task, and may misunderstand some information. Level 3 — Professional Able to read with almost complete comprehension a variety of authentic written material on general and professional subjects, including unfamiliar subject matter. Demonstrates the ability to learn through reading. Comprehension is not dependent on subject matter. Contexts include news, informational and editorial items in major periodicals intended for educated native readers, personal and professional correspondence, reports, and material in special fields of competence. Can readily understand such language functions as hypothesising, supporting opinion, argumentation, clarification, and various forms of elaboration.

Can generally distinguish between different stylistic levels and often recognises humor, emotional overtones, and subtleties of written language. Misreading is rare. Can get the gist of higher level, sophisticated texts, but may be unable to detect all nuances. Cannot always thoroughly comprehend texts that have an unusually complex structure, low frequency idioms, or a high degree of cultural knowledge embedded in the language. Reading speed may be somewhat slower than that of a native reader. Level 4 — Expert Demonstrates strong competence in reading all styles and forms of the written language used for professional purposes, including texts from unfamiliar general and professional-specialist areas.

Can readily follow unpredictable turns of thought on any subject matter addressed to the general reader. Shows both global and detailed understanding of texts including highly abstract concepts. Can understand almost all cultural references and can relate a specific text to other written materials within the culture. Demonstrates a firm grasp of stylistic nuances, irony, and humor. Reading speed is similar to that of a native reader. Can read reasonably legible handwriting without difficulty. Level 5 — Highly-articulate native Reading proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of the well-educated native reader.

Able to fully comprehend all forms and styles of the written language understood by the well-educated native reader. Demonstrates the same facility as the well-educated, non-specialist native when reading general legal documents, technical writing, and literature, including both experimental prose and classical texts. Can read a wide variety of handwritten documents. Level 0 — No proficiency No functional writing ability. Level 1 — Survival Can write to meet immediate personal needs. Examples include lists, short notes, post cards, short personal letters, phone messages, and invitations as well as filling out forms and applications.

Writing tends to be a loose collection of sentences or fragments on a given topic, with little evidence of conscious organization. Can convey basic intention by writing short, simple sentences, often joined by common linking words. However, errors in spelling, vocabulary, grammar, and punctuation are frequent. Level 2 — Functional Can write simple personal and routine workplace correspondence and related documents, such as memoranda, brief reports, and private letters, on everyday topics. Can state facts; give instructions; describe people, places, and things; can narrate current, past, and future activities in complete, but simple paragraphs.

Can combine and link sentences into connected prose; paragraphs contrast with and connect to other paragraphs in reports and correspondence. Ideas may be roughly organised according to major points or straightforward sequencing of events. However, relationship of ideas may not always be clear, and transitions may be awkward. Prose can be understood by a native not used to reading material written by non-natives.

Simple, high frequency grammatical structures are typically controlled, while more complex structures are used inaccurately or avoided. Vocabulary use is appropriate for high frequency topics, with some circumlocutions. Errors in grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation may sometimes distort meaning. However, the individual writes in a way that is generally appropriate for the occasion, although command of the written language is not always firm.

Level 3 — Professional Can write effective formal and informal correspondence and documents on practical, social, and professional topics. Can write about special fields of competence with considerable ease. Can use the written language for essay-length argumentation, analysis, hypothesis, and extensive explanation, narration, and description. Although techniques used to organise extended texts may seem somewhat foreign to native readers, the correct meaning is conveyed.

The relationship and development of ideas are clear, and major points are coherently ordered to fit the purpose of the text. Transitions are usually successful. Control of structure, vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation is adequate to convey the message accurately. Errors are occasional, do not interfere with comprehension, and rarely disturb the native reader. While writing style may be non-native, it is appropriate for the occasion. When it is necessary for a document to meet full native expectations, some editing will be required. Level 4 — Expert Can write the language precisely and accurately for all professional purposes including the representation of an official policy or point of view.

Can prepare highly effective written communication in a variety of prose styles, even in unfamiliar general or professional-specialist areas. Demonstrates strong competence in formulating private letters, job-related texts, reports, position papers, and the final draft of a variety of other papers. Shows the ability to use the written language to persuade others and to elaborate on abstract concepts. Organises extended texts well, conveys meaning effectively, and uses stylistically appropriate prose. Shows a firm grasp of various levels of style and can express nuances and shades of meaning.

Level 5 — Highly-articulate native Writing proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of a well-educated native writer. Uses the organisational principles and stylistic devices that reflect the cultural norms of natives when writing formal and informal correspondence, official documents, articles for publication, and material related to a professional specialty.

Writing is clear and informative. Usually requires pauses even between familiar phrases and must often request repetition. Can understand only with difficulty even people used to adapting their speech when speaking with non-natives. Can best understand those utterances in which context strongly supports meaning. Not only comprehends short conversations based on simple questions and answers, but also has some limited and unsustained ability to understand slightly longer conversations on concrete topics.

Shows a limited and unsustained ability to understand descriptions of people, places, and things; narrations of events; factual information; and straightforward instructions or directions. Usually unable to sustain comprehension of texts of paragraph length. Topics best understood include basic needs such as food, lodging, transportation, shopping, as well as family, personal background and interests, and travel plans.

However, shows some ability to comprehend several related sentences linked to workplace communication, current events, responses to requests for information and clarification. Quite likely to comprehend the main idea of this type of spoken text, but may misunderstand some supporting facts. Similarly, comprehends simple structures in short spoken texts but may misunderstand more complex structures.

Shows a very limited ability to comprehend the general meaning of spoken language from the media. Natives used to speaking with non-natives may need to resort to repetition or rephrasing to be understood. Can reliably understand face-to-face speech in a standard dialect, delivered at a normal rate with minimal repetition and rewording, by a native speaker not used to speaking with non-natives. In addition to understanding all discussions of concrete topics found in descriptions and narration about current, past, and future events, can also understand a significant amount of the language used at interactive meetings, briefings, and other forms of extended discourse including some discussions of unfamiliar subjects and situations; however, will demonstrate some lapses in understanding.

Also, shows some ability to understand the essential points of conversations among educated native speakers, lectures on general subjects, reasonably clear telephone calls and media broadcasts. However, occasionally misinterprets discourse built upon hypothesis, supported opinion, argumentation, and the voicing of objections. May follow discussions of abstract concepts without fully understanding abstract linguistic formulations. May not always discern the distinctions between various stylistic levels of discourse.

However, may show some ability to recognize humor and emotional overtones. Does not always understand implicit information in a spoken text. Occasionally misses some words and phrases of statements made in unfavorable conditions for example, through loudspeakers outdoors or in a highly emotional situation. Will probably have some difficulty understanding native speakers if they speak very rapidly or use slang and unusual idioms. Can readily understand extended discourse used for personal and professional purposes such as justifying decisions, responding to challenges, and defending policy.

Understands a significant amount of highly sophisticated language produced by well-educated native speakers even on some unfamiliar topics. Can usually adjust to shifts of subject matter and tone. Comprehends native speakers at conferences, negotiations, lectures, presentations, briefings, and debates. Can follow some unpredictable turns of thought in both informal and formal speech. Often understands language specifically tailored for various types of audiences, including that intended for persuasion, representation, and counseling. Recognizes nuances, humor, and emotional overtones of speech; and may be able to correctly interpret culturally-related references.

Comprehends most media broadcasts, conversations among native speakers; sometimes understands regionalisms and dialects. However, there are some limitations in performance of these more sophisticated skills. May miss some subtleties and cultural references, but this rarely prevents successful comprehension of native speakers. Demonstrates internalization of sociolinguistic and cultural references of any country or area where the language is natively spoken. However, there may be an occasional non-native lapse in comprehending native speakers using nonstandard dialects, regionalisms, and slang.

Shows some lapses in understanding language distorted by marked interference from other noise. Accuracy is nearly native. Can ask questions or make statements with reasonable accuracy only with memorized material. Attempts at creating speech at the sentence level are usually unsuccessful. Vocabulary is random and generally limited to areas of immediate survival needs, such as some or all of the following: greetings, brief personal data, numbers, time expressions, common objects. However, most utterances are telegraphic; linking words and markers are omitted, confused, or distorted.

Even with repetition, communication is severely limited, even with native speakers used to speaking with non-natives. Pronunciation, stress, and intonation are usually quite faulty even in memorized speech. Shows a very limited and inconsistent ability to handle longer conversations on concrete topics. Discourse consists of strings of related sentences but not full paragraphs. Can satisfy a few social demands and provide somewhat more than skeletal information when making introductions and supplying biographical background. Can readily ask for assistance; request information and clarification; and express satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and confirmation. Shows a limited and inconsistent ability to describe people, places, and things; to narrate events; to state facts; to give instructions or directions; to communicate in the workplace; and to talk about current events.

However, may hesitate and even have to change the subject because of lack of language resources. In addition to basic needs, topics may include family, personal background and interests, travel plans, and simple work-related matters. Simple structures and basic grammatical relations are only somewhat controlled. Time references may be used incorrectly. Vocabulary may be imprecise except for the highest frequency utterances. Frequent errors in pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar may impede communication. Delivery may be labored.

Low Proficiency In English Language Essay, Paul Z. You'll be Low Proficiency In English Language Essay to take elective modules from another countries with mandatory military service. List of countries by English-speaking population Low Proficiency In English Language Essay of countries where English is an official language. Low Proficiency In English Language Essay will have the opportunity to become proficient in all aspects of managing small-scale linguistic projects, from identifying the research questions, to communicating Low Proficiency In English Language Essay findings. Essay about day out Low Proficiency In English Language Essay friends. When Krashen came out with the Input Hypothesis, he Low Proficiency In English Language Essay described acquisition with another closely Low Proficiency In English Language Essay hypothesis, the Affective Filter Hypothesis.

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