➊ Attractiveness: A Literature Review

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Attractiveness: A Literature Review

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In this paper, we focus on the preferential treatment of buyers by their suppliers. As there is a lack of detailed information regarding the reasons that suppliers serve some buyers better than others, our research addresses a supplier's evaluation of customers and how this evaluation can be influenced by buyers. To give an overview of the drivers of preferential treatment by suppliers, the provided literature review covers three research fields that are considered crucial to this issue: i customer attractiveness, ii supplier satisfaction and iii preferred customer status.

By integrating these research topics, we provide a state-of-the-art analysis and overview of the various drivers of preferential treatment, build a preliminary conceptual model and suggest several directions for future research. The identification of the drivers and the resulting conceptual framework can serve as a stepping stone for additional research in this new field. C Published by Elsevier Inc. The drivers of customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status : A literature review. T1 - The drivers of customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status. Further, it is possible that attractiveness detracts from accuracy in perceptions of academic performance much as attractiveness can detract from accuracy in perceptions of health and intelligence.

While there are various seemingly logical explanations for why attractiveness could be a valid cue to academic performance, the empirical evidence for a link between the two is extremely weak and perhaps only existing in the lower half of the distribution i. Further, we hypothesise that controlling for the misperceptions about attractiveness may improve accuracy in perceptions of academic performance. We argue that this effect of controlling for attractiveness takes the form of a classic type of suppression see [ 8 — 12 ]. In classical suppression, the suppressor is unrelated to the variable of interest but is related to the predictor, and therefore the shared variance between the predictor in this case, perceived conscientiousness, intelligence or academic performance and the suppressor attractiveness is unrelated to the outcome measure actual academic performance.

By controlling for this irrelevant variance in the predictor, the strength of the association between the predictor and outcome variable increases. All participants provided informed written consent and were debriefed accordingly. The individuals in this manuscript have also given written informed consent to blend their facial photographs to create average faces and publish these case details. Written consent was recorded via both electronic submission and on hard copies. The ethics committee approved this consent procedure. One-hundred of the most standardized e.

The original image collection contained more women than men and removal of males with beards enhanced the gender bias. Nonetheless, we maximised the number of stimuli available for judgments to maintain power in the analysis. Selection of standardized faces was done blind to their academic performance. Todorov and Porter [ 78 ] highlight significant differences in person impressions within multiple facial photos of the same person due to random variation and discuss how this can influence accuracy of personality inferences based on faces. Thus, it was important to select the most standardized stimuli.

All of the stimuli photographs of participants used were taken under standardized lighting conditions and camera set-up; individuals had their hair pulled back, did not wear any kind of make-up or jewellery, and were instructed to pose with a neutral facial expression. Face images were aligned on left and right pupils. Images were then resized and cropped x pixels so that an equal proportion of hair and neck was exposed in each. All participants consented to releasing their academic performance records for the purpose of this research.

Academic records were accessed via the Universities database. Academic performance at the University of St Andrews is marked on a point scale reported to one decimal place for final module grades. An average academic performance was calculated by taking the Grade Point Average GPA across every year weighted by every module credit completed by the student. Participants varied in their course of study and the number of modules completed based on their year and semester of study 63 in Sciences, 37 in Arts; 44 first and second year undergraduates, 39 third and fourth year undergraduates, and 17 in postgraduate courses. Accordingly, methods of evaluation e.

Four separate groups of participants were recruited and paid via Amazon Mechanical Turk to obtain ratings of perceived attractiveness, intelligence, conscientiousness, and academic performance no other face ratings obtained for this study. Table 1 shows the demographics of each participant group. Differences in sample sizes were based on differences in the number of participants completing the task while the link was live on Amazon Mechanical Turk and number of exclusions. Analysis was re-run with all participants and there were no differences in the pattern of findings; i. Evaluators first previewed all stimuli with each image displayed for one second. The stimuli were then re-presented so that participants could rate the face on the focal trait for each sample: perceived attractiveness, intelligence, consciousness, or academic performance.

Faces were presented in random order. To ensure the paid participants were not quickly and hastily clicking through images, images were presented for at least one second before participants were allowed to continue to the next image, but no maximum response time was enforced. Evaluators then completed a questionnaire inquiring about their age, gender, and ethnicity. Facial ratings were done on a 7-point scale with endpoints according to the face rating task: attractiveness endpoints were not at all attractive to very attractive ; perceived intelligence endpoints were not at all intelligent to very intelligent ; perceived conscientiousness endpoints were not at all conscientious to very conscientious.

An average score of perceived attractiveness, intelligence, academic performance and conscientiousness was calculated for each of the faces based on the average of all the evaluator ratings. Table 2 gives the zero order correlations between ratings and academic performance and demographic variables. There was a significant correlation between older age and higher actual academic performance and female faces were perceived as more attractive see Table 2. Given the high correlations between rated attributes perceived attractiveness, perceived conscientiousness, perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance , we wanted to ensure that any statistical controls were based on sufficiently reliable measures and discriminability valid constructs.

We explored any potential issues with multi-collinearity, as research has suggested high VIF calculations may raise concerns over interpretations [ 82 ]. The test to see if the data met the assumption of collinearity indicated that multi-collinearity was not a concern VIF scores over 10 are seen as problematic; [ 82 ]. Partial correlations were conducted in which the influence of age of face, sex of face, and perceived attractiveness were controlled for. Findings do not change when controlling for only attractiveness in the partial correlation. Nor do they change when controlling for the combination of attractiveness and age or the combination of attractiveness and sex of face.

This bar graph shows the increased accuracy of the different perceived competence variables when controlling for perceived attractiveness. The same pattern emerges when controlling for the additional variables of sex and age of face. We investigated the predictive power of perceived conscientiousness over attractiveness and the other perceived competence variables with a multiple linear regression model.

Facial averages of faces were created to help the reader visualize perceptions of conscientiousness and the attractiveness halo. All face images were manually delineated with points. The averaging a computes the average coordinate values for facial landmarks within the set of face images, b warps each shape of each facial image into these average coordinates, and then blends the warped component images [ 83 , 84 ].

These average images were then made symmetrical see [ 41 ]. The attractiveness halo would suggest that faces percieved as most conscientious left would be more attractive than the faces rated as least conscientious right. There are three main findings. First, there was no first-order relationship between perceptions of conscientiousness, academic performance or intelligence and actual academic performance. Second, when controlling for the expected influences that age, sex and perceived attractiveness on perceptions of competence perceived conscientiousness, academic performance and intelligence , then the relation between perceived competence and actual academic performance increased in strength.

Third, perceived conscientiousness was the single best face perception predictor of actual academic performance outperforming perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance , and again accuracy was significantly improved when controlling for the suppressor variable of attractiveness. As we expected, the form of the relationship is one of classic suppression in which there is some factor perceived attractiveness that is correlated with perceptions of conscientiousness, but not correlated with actual academic performance [ 8 — 12 ]. When this factor is controlled, the relationship between perceived conscientiousness and actual academic performance is increased see Fig 3. It should also be noted that, although some previous literature suggests weak correlations between attractiveness and cognitive performance measures [ 16 ], in our study perceived attractiveness was not a valid cue to actual academic performance.

This figure shows the noise in perceived conscientiousness the overlap between perceived attractiveness and perceived conscientiousness and how by suppressing this noise results in an improved predictor of actual academic performance greater overlap between the remaining perceived conscientiousness and actual academic performance. Given the amount of research on higher expectations and desired educational traits being ascribed to attractive students over unattractive students, it is not surprising that faces that were rated as more intelligent, having better academic performance and being more conscientious were also rated as more attractive see composite faces in Fig 2.

As predicted, there were high correlations between perceptions of attractiveness and perceptions of intelligence, conscientiousness, and academic performance, likely reflecting the strength of the attractiveness halo, as well as the similarities among these perceived competence measures [ 87 ]. While there is less evidence to suggest perceptions of intelligence and academic performance are unique constructs, the possibility that perceived conscientiousness and perceived attractiveness are not distinguishable empirically is dealt with in two ways: face validity of the items for which evaluators were clearly rating conscientiousness or attractiveness the measures were unambiguous to the evaluators ; and we calculated inter-evaluator reliabilities for conscientiousness and attractiveness ratings and even after correcting for attenuation due to measurement error, the correlations between these variables remained distinct i.

Taken together, these elements suggest that these measures can be treated here as distinct constructs, and that they are measured with sufficient reliability to be distinguished empirically in this study. The high correlations do create potential for interpretative difficulties in multiple regression, and under such circumstances we find it important to emphasize the role of suppression in their relationship in a way that reflects the traditional understanding of the attractiveness halo. Findings suggest that accuracy in perceptions of academic performance also increases with the clarity and validity of the question proposed. When controlling for attractiveness, age and sex, perceptions of conscientiousness in faces yielded above chance accuracy in predicting academic performance, but accuracy in predicting actual academic performance did not reach levels of statistical significance with perceptions of intelligence or perceptions of academic performance.

Given the high correlations between these perceived competence measures, it is difficult to say for certain whether perceptions of conscientiousness are unique in their capacity to predict actual academic performance over and above perceptions of intelligence or academic performance. Rather, it seems perceptions of conscientiousness predicts actual academic performance because, in comparison, it may be the least ambiguous competence construct. As previously argued, it is likely that individual differences in theories and understandings of intelligence can lead, on average, to less accurate perceptions of intelligence in faces.

Likewise, perceived academic performance is possibly confounded by a combination of the ambiguities in the term intelligence fixed vs. The improved accuracy in perceived conscientiousness predicting actual academic performance over perceived intelligence is also consistent with research that suggests that actual conscientiousness is a stronger predictor of academic performance than actual intelligence [ 70 ]. Further, the Intelligence Compensation Theory ICT suggests that conscientiousness acts as a coping strategy for relatively less intelligent people. While evidence for ICT is limited, some studies have found significant negative correlations between fluid intelligence and conscientiousness [ 72 , 73 ].

Other studies have found a significant negative correlation between crystalized intelligence and conscientiousness [ 88 ]. Thus, our findings of perceived conscientiousness better predicting actual academic performance in faces than perceived intelligence is consistent with literature suggesting actual conscientiousness is a better predictor than intelligence in predicting actual academic performance. Nonetheless, given the high correlations amongst the perceived competence variables explored perceived intelligence, perceived academic performance and perceived conscientiousness , we must be cautious in claiming that only perceived conscientiousness is related to actual academic performance; rather we argue that the specificity in rating tasks and the influence of attractiveness bias are worth considering when exploring validity of judgements based on faces.

The increased accuracy of academic performance in faces after controlling for attractiveness has important implications. Indeed, Olivola and Todorov [ 89 ] showed that judges overweigh aspects of appearance and would be more accurate in judging personality if face perception was ignored. However, facial impressions have consistently been shown to influence our opinions as well as bias decisions in politics [ 90 ], leadership [ 91 ], law [ 92 ], parental expectations and punishments on children [ 93 ], military rank promotion [ 94 ], and teacher evaluations [ 95 ].

Clearly, the power of first impressions is critical and has repeatedly been shown to influence our opinions about a person. Furthermore, research has found that femininity is considered more attractive than masculinity [ 43 ] and that females perform better academically and stay in education longer than males [ 96 ], which likely leads to females being ascribed more desired educational traits over men. It is also well documented that older students do better on intelligence tests [ 97 , 98 ] and do better academically than younger students.

Moreover, crystalized intelligence and perceptions of wisdom have shown to increase linearly with age [ 99 , ], which would influence impressions of competence in older students hence the intentionally limited university age range for facial stimuli presented. Our research suggests that when controlling for biases of attractiveness, age and sex, independently or collectively, accuracy of perceived academic performance is significantly improved. Perhaps one of the most alarming consequences of using insufficient information to guide first impressions is the expectancy effect in education.

Future research in face perception can benefit from noting the significant differences in perception accuracy based on different theories of intelligence or competence. Perhaps more importantly, given the well documented effects of expectations of academic performance on actual academic performance, our findings help emphasize the biased effects of perceived attractiveness on expectations of academic performance. We thank Martin Campbell for his very helpful feedback on earlier versions of the manuscript. We also thank William Peter for his assistance in participant recruitment. Conceived and designed the experiments: ST DP. Performed the experiments: ST. Browse Subject Areas?

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Funding: These authors have no support or funding to report. Introduction A review by Langlois et al. Attractiveness and Academic Performance Research has also investigated the potential relationship between perceived attractiveness and actual academic performance, with no clear consensus. Accuracy in Face Perception Research suggests extroversion can be accurately perceived after only a ms exposure to a face [ 28 ], strength can be accurately estimated from faces independent of height, weight, and age [ 29 ] and the dark triad of personality Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy can be accurately perceived in composites of expression-neutral facial images [ 30 ].

Health, Attractiveness and Over-generalization Clearly, the face provides a variety of cues to hormones, health, and sleep status. Academic Performance Measures All participants consented to releasing their academic performance records for the purpose of this research. Face Ratings Four separate groups of participants were recruited and paid via Amazon Mechanical Turk to obtain ratings of perceived attractiveness, intelligence, conscientiousness, and academic performance no other face ratings obtained for this study. Download: PPT.

Results An average score of perceived attractiveness, intelligence, academic performance and conscientiousness was calculated for each of the faces based on the average of all the evaluator ratings. Facial Averages Facial averages of faces were created to help the reader visualize perceptions of conscientiousness and the attractiveness halo. Discussion There are three main findings. Acknowledgments We thank Martin Campbell for his very helpful feedback on earlier versions of the manuscript. References 1. Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review.

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Proc R Soc London B. Holtzman NS. Facing a psychopath: Detecting the dark triad from emotionally-neutral faces, using prototypes from the Personality Faceaurus. Social attributions from faces: Determinants, consequences, accuracy, and functional significance. Annu Rev Psychol. High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans. Testosterone responses to competition in men are related to facial masculinity. Telling facial metrics: Facial width is associated with testosterone levels in men. Second to fourth digit ratio and face shape. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

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