⒈ Ceremony Native Americans

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Ceremony Native Americans

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Upon analyzing over 2, songs from Frances Densmore's collection of native music, the study was able to find even the relation between subjects like love in songs, and pitch variety and tessitura. Love songs could be characterized with high tessituras and spacious melodies, with larger intervals and ranges. They are also, in many cases, found to be perceived as "sad"- pertaining to departure, loss or longing. This explains the relationship between the lyrical subject and relatively slow melodic movement and low dynamics.

Hiding game songs, such as those associated with "moccasin, hand and hiding-stick or hiding-bones games," were found with a significantly low average duration and small pitch range and variety. They also found that "healing songs," and their characteristic of a narrow range and comparatively increased repetition of low notes, was likely intended to create a soothing sound that would ease discomfort in the event when a healing song would be sung. Regarding the music of specific people, they found that Yuman nature songs often have a small range, a descending melodic movement, and frequent repeated musical motifs. The Densmore collection also characterizes war songs as having a wider range, higher register, and greater diversity in duration and pitch.

In comparison, dance songs also have these distinctions, although they can be found in the opposite sense, as dance songs are often found with lower registers. Dance songs are also similar to animal songs in range, pitch variety, and primary register. This study also maintains a significant view that many of these characteristics, "pitch height, tempo, dynamics, and variability," have a direct relationship with emotional response, bringing out such response regardless of culture, meaning that similar characteristics of one culture's music and its function will often be found in another culture's for the same function.

This is how Shanahan, Neubarth, and Conklin were able to use Densmore's collection of over 2, songs to create an analysis of comparison between subject and musical characteristic. Native American song texts include both public pieces and secret songs, said to be "ancient and unchanging", which are used for only sacred and ceremonial purposes. There are also public sacred songs, as well as ritual speeches that are sometimes perceived as musical because of their use of rhythm and melody.

These ritual speeches often directly describe the events of a ceremony, and the reasons and ramifications of the night. Vocables , or lexically meaningless syllables, are a common part of many kinds of Native American songs. They frequently mark the beginning and end of phrases, sections or songs themselves. Often songs make frequent use of vocables and other untranslatable elements. Songs that are translatable include historical songs, like the Navajo " Shi' naasha' , which celebrates the end of Navajo internment in Fort Sumner, New Mexico in Tribal flag songs and national anthems are also a major part of the Native American musical corpus, and are a frequent starter to public ceremonies, especially powwows.

Native American music also includes a range of courtship songs, dancing songs and popular American or Canadian tunes like " Amazing Grace ", " Jambalaya " and " Sugar Time ". Many songs celebrate harvest, planting season or other important times of year. Native American music plays a vital role in history and education, with ceremonies and stories orally passing on ancestral customs to new generations. Native American ceremonial music is traditionally said to originate from deities or spirits, or from particularly respected individuals. Rituals are shaped by every aspect of a song, dance, and costuming, and each aspect informs about the "makers, wearers and symbols important to the nation, tribe, village, clan, family, or individual". Epic legends and stories about cultural heroes are a part of tribal music traditions, and these tales are often an iconic part of local culture.

The Pueblo composes a number of new songs each year in a committee that uses dreams and visions. Some native Americans view songs as 'property' owned by the tribe or individual who first perceived it. For example, if an individual received the song in a dream or vision, the music would belong to that individual, and that individual would have the power to give the song to another.

In other cases, the music would be the property of the peoples from which it originated. The styles and purposes of music vary greatly between and among each Native American tribe. However, a common concept amongst many indigenous groups is a conflation of music and power. For example, the Pima people feel many of their songs were given in the beginning and sung by the Creator. It was believed that some people then have more of an inclination to musical talent than others because of an individual's peculiar power.

Within various Native American communities, gender plays an important role in music. Men and women play sex-specific roles in many musical activities. Instruments, songs and dances are often particular to one or the other sex, and many musical settings are strictly controlled by sex. In modern powwows, women play a vital role as backup singers and dancers. At these pre-game events, men and women perform separate dances and follow separate regulations. Men will dance in a circle around a fire, while women dance in place. Men sing their own songs, while women have their songs sung for them by an elder. Whereas the men's songs invoke power, the women's songs draw power away from the opposing stickball team.

For the Southern Plains Indians, it is believed that the first drum was given to a woman by the Great Spirit, who instructed her to share it with all women of native nations. However, there also exist prohibitions against women sitting at the Beg Drum. Many tribal music cultures have a relative paucity of traditional women's songs and dances, especially in the Northeast and Southeast regions. The Southeast is, however, home to a prominent women's musical tradition in the use of leg rattles for ceremonial stomp and friendship dances, and the women's singing during Horse and Ball Game contests.

The West Coast tribes of North America tend to more prominence in women's music, with special women's love songs , medicine songs and handgame songs; the Southwest is particularly diverse in women's musical offerings, with major ceremonial, instrumental and social roles in dances. Women also play a vital ceremonial role in the Sun Dance of the Great Plains and Great Basin, and sing during social dances. Shoshone women still sang the songs of the Ghost Dance into the s. Music and history are tightly interwoven in Native American life. A tribe's history is constantly told and retold through music, which keeps alive an oral narrative of history.

These historical narratives vary widely from tribe to tribe and are an integral part of tribal identity. However, their historical authenticity cannot be verified; aside from supposition and some archaeological evidence, the earliest documentation of Native American music came with the arrival of European explorers. Bruno Nettl refers to the style of the Great Basin area as the oldest style and common throughout the entire continent before Mesoamerica but continued in only the Great Basin and in the lullaby, gambling, and tale genres around the continent. A style featuring relaxed vocal technique and the rise may have originated in Mesoamerican Mexico and spread northward, particularly into the California-Yuman and Eastern music areas.

According to Nettl, these styles also feature "relative" rhythmic simplicity in drumming and percussion, with isometric material and pentatonic scales in the singing, and motives created from shorter sections into longer ones. While this process occurred, three Asian styles may have influenced North American music across the Bering Strait, all featuring pulsating vocal technique and possibly evident in recent Paleo-Siberian tribes such as Chuckchee, Yukaghir, Koryak.

According to Nettl, the boundary between these southward and the above northward influences are the areas of greatest musical complexity: the Northwest Coast, Pueblo music, and Navajo music. Evidence of influences between the Northwest Coast and Mexico are indicated, for example, by bird-shaped whistles. He had a goal to discover "American Music" and called upon American composers to look to these cultures of music for study and inspiration.

While Native American and African American musical roots are rather different, they share similar characteristics such as featured pentatonic melodies and complex rhythms. Thousands pass it, while others trample it underfoot, and thus the chances are that it will perish before it is seen by the one discriminating spirit who will prize it above all else. During this time he also wrote his Symphony No. Before the symphony's performance, he made it clear the fact that 'the work was written under the direct influence of a serious study of the national music of North American Indians. Archaeological evidence of Native American music dates as far back as the Archaic period ca. During that period, early musicologists and folklorists collected and studied Native American music, and propounded theories about indigenous styles.

In the early 20th century, more systematic research began. Densmore was the most prolific of the era, publishing more than one hundred works on Native American music. As a child, Densmore gained an appreciation for indigenous music by listening to the Dakota peoples, and throughout her life was able to record over a thousand songs performed by native Americans in fifty plus years, beginning in One distinction that makes her work so valuable, is that many of her recordings were conducted with more elderly individuals with little influence from Western musical tradition, and involve an impressively large range in geographical origin. Many of the recordings she made are now held in the Library of Congress for researchers and tribal delegations.

Most recently, since the s, Native American music has been a part of ethnomusicological research, studied by Bruno Nettl , William Powers and David McAllester , among others. Native Americans of the Southwestern United States were limited to idiophones and aerophones as mediums to sound production beginning date in the seventh century. The applicable idiophones included: plank resonators, footed drums , percussion stones , shaken idiophones , vessel rattles , and copper and clay bells.

The applicable aerophones included bullroarers , decomposable whistles and flutes, clay resonator whistles, shell trumpets and prehistoric reed instruments. The wood flute was of particular significance. Arid American Southwest is home to two broad groupings of closely related cultures, the Pueblo and Athabaskan. The Southern Athabaskan Navajo and Apache tribes sing in Plains-style nasal vocals with unblended monophony, while the Pueblos emphasize a relaxed, low range and highly blended monophonic style.

Athabaskan songs are swift and use drums or rattles , as well as an instrument unique to this area, the Apache fiddle , or "Tsii'edo'a'tl" meaning "wood that sings" in the Apache language. Pueblo songs are complex and meticulously detailed, usually with five sections divided into four or more phrases characterized by detailed introductory and cadential formulas. They are much slower in tempo than Athabaskan songs, and use various percussion instruments as accompaniment. Nettl describes Pueblo music, including Hopi , Zuni , Taos Pueblo , San Ildefonso Pueblo , Santo Domingo Pueblo , and many others, as one of the most complex on the continent, featuring increased length and number of scale tones hexatonic and heptatonic common , variety of form, melodic contour, and percussive accompaniment, ranges between an octave and a twelfth, with rhythmic complexity equal to the Plains sub-area.

He cites the Kachina dance songs as the most complex songs and Hopi and Zuni material as the most complex of the Pueblo, while Tanoan and Keresan music is simpler and intermediate between the Plains and western Pueblos. The music of the Pima and Tohono O'odham is intermediary between the Plains-Pueblo and the California-Yuman music areas, with melodic movement of the Yuman, though including the rise , and the form and rhythm of the Pueblo. He describes Southern Athabascan music, that of the Apache and Navajo, as the simplest next to the Great Basin style, featuring strophic form , tense vocals using pulsation and falsetto , tritonic and tetratonic scales in triad formation, simple rhythms and values of limited duration usually only two per song , arc-type melodic contours, and large melodic intervals with a predominance of major and minor thirds and perfect fourths and fifths with octave leaps not rare.

Peyote songs share characteristics of Apache music and Plains-Pueblo music having been promoted among the Plains by the Apache people. He describes the structural characteristics of California-Yuman music, including that of Pomo, Miwak, Luiseno, Catalineno, and Gabrielino, and the Yuman tribes, including, Mohave, Yuman, Havasupai, Maricopa, as using the rise in almost all songs, a relaxed nonpulsating vocal technique like European classical music , a relatively large amount of isorhythmic material, some isorhythmic tendencies, simple rhythms, pentatonic scales without semitones, an average melodic range of an octave, sequence , and syncopated figures such as a sixteenth-note, eight-note, sixteenth-note figure.

The form of rise used varies throughout the area, usually being rhythmically related to the preceding non-rise section but differing in melodic material or pitch. The rise may be no higher than the highest pitch of the original section, but will contain a much larger number of higher pitches. In California the non-rise is usually one reiterate phrase, the rise being the phrase transposed an octave higher, the Yumans use a non-rise of long repeated sections each consisting of several phrases, the rise being three to five phrases performed only once, and in southern California the previous two and progressive forms are found.

In Southern California today, the traditional music of the Cahuilla is kept alive in the performance of the Bird songs. The Bird songs are a song cycle depicting the story of the southward migration of the Cahuilla people and also contain lessons on life as well as other topics. Altogether, they make up more than pieces of music, traditionally performed in a specific sequence. Performances of the Bird songs would begin at dusk and end at dawn, each night for a week, until the song cycle was complete.

As such, physical and vocal dexterity were highly sought after attributes within performers. Inhabiting a wide swath of the United States and Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands , according to Nettl, can be distinguished by antiphony call and response style singing , which does not occur in other areas. Mid-Atlantic , Great Lakes and Southeast regions. Songs are rhythmically complex, characterized by frequent metric changes and a close relationship to ritual dance.

Flutes and whistles are solo instruments, and a wide variety of drums, rattles and striking sticks are played. Nettl describes the Eastern music area as the region between the Mississippi river and the Atlantic. The most complex styles are that of the Southeastern Creek, Yuchi , Cherokee, Choctaw , Iroquois and their language group, with the simpler style being that of the Algonquian language group including Delaware and Penobscot. The Algonquian-speaking Shawnee have a relatively complex style influenced by the nearby southeastern tribes. The characteristics of this entire area include short iterative phrases; reverting relationships; shouts before, during, and after singing anhemitonic pentatonic scales ; simple rhythms and meter and, according to Nettl, antiphonal or responsorial techniques including "rudimentary imitative polyphony ".

Melodic movement tends to be gradually descending throughout the area and vocals include a moderate amount of tension and pulsation. Extending across the American Midwest into Canada, Plains -area music is nasal , with high pitches and frequent falsettos , with a terraced descent a step-by-step descent down an octave in an unblended monophony. Strophes use incomplete repetition , meaning that songs are divided into two parts, the second of which is always repeated before returning to the beginning.

Large double-sided skin drums are characteristic of the Plains tribes, and solo end-blown flutes flageolet are also common. This area's music is characterized by extreme vocal tension, pulsation, melodic preference for perfect fourths and a range averring a tenth, rhythmic complexity, and increased frequency of tetratonic scales. The musics of the Arapaho and Cheyenne intensify these characteristics, while the northern tribes, especially Blackfoot music , feature simpler material, smaller melodic ranges, and fewer scale tones.

Nettl Arapaho music includes ceremonial and secular songs, such as the ritualistic Sun Dance , performed in the summer when the various bands of the Arapaho people would come together. Arapaho traditional songs consist of two sections exhibiting terraced descent, with a range greater than an octave and scales between four and six tones. Other ceremonial songs were received in visions, or taught as part of a man's initiations into a society for his age group. Secular songs include a number of social dances, such as the triple meter round dances and songs to inspire warriors or recent exploits.

There are also songs said to be taught by a guardian spirit, which should be sung only when the recipient is near death. Music of the Great Basin is simple, discreet and ornate, characterized by short melodies with a range smaller than an octave , moderately-blended monophony , relaxed and open vocals and, most unusually, paired-phrase structure, in which a melodic phrase , repeated twice, is alternated with one to two additional phrases. Nettl describes the music of the sparsely settled Great Basin, including most of desert Utah and Nevada Paiute, Ute, Shoshoni and some of southern Oregon Modoc and Klamath , as "extremely simple," featuring melodic ranges averaging just over a perfect fifth, many tetratonic scales, and short forms.

The majority of songs are iterative with each phrase repeated once, though occasional songs with multiple repetitions are found. Many Modoc and Klamath songs contain only one repeated phrase and many of their scales only two to three notes ditonic or tritonic. This style was carried to the Great Plains by the Ghost Dance religion which originated among the Paiute, and very frequently features paired-phrase patterns and a relaxed nonpulsating vocal style.

Herzog attributes the similarly simple lullabies, song-stories, and gambling songs found all over the continent historically to the music of the Great Basin which was preserved through relative cultural isolation and low population. Open vocals with monophony are common in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia , though polyphony also occurs this is the only area of North America with native polyphony. Chromatic intervals accompanying long melodies are also characteristic, and rhythms are complex and declamatory, deriving from speech. Instrumentation is more diverse than in the rest of North America, and includes a wide variety of whistles, flutes, horns and percussion instruments.

With the coming of the Europeans there was a lot of pain. They took their children, and destroyed many homes. But then, there was the sweat lodge. The sweat lodge could be used for physical and spiritual healing, as well with purification with the coming of alcohol. It was a place to get answers from the gods when it was needed. The traditional sweat lodge was a wickup made up of slender widths of aspen, willow, other supple saplings, or whatever could be found or made by hand. It was sanctuary in their hands, and helping close by. The Great Plains Native Americans were amazing people, with what they built how they lived and how hard life was. Though the first Great Plains Native American may be gone, his beliefs, great-great-great-grandchildren, hopes, and ceremonies still live on.

This is a picture of a Native American man in everyday clothing, by the designs and details, he is probably chief , or Shaman. There was a problem submitting your report. Please contact Adobe Support. If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use , you may report this content by filling out this quick form. Great Plains Ceremonies and Beliefs By whitney.

This is a dancer performing the Grass Dance. This is a sweat lodge. This is 3 men who seem to be standing next to the sweat lodge. This is a smaller sweat lodge. This is a picture of three men inside a sweat lodge. Grass Dancer. The Ghost Dance. Hunters following the migration of the buffalo. A tribe standing outside thier tepees. Made with Adobe Slate Make your words and images move. All rights reserved.

Journal of California and Great Basin Misfortune Quotes. Ceremony Native Americans source History Talk 0. A very old Ceremony Native Americans medicine man from Canada came down to Minnesota. It is Research Paper About Zoos by many Native American Ceremony Native Americans as part of their ceremonies. While Ceremony Native Americans process occurred, Ceremony Native Americans Asian styles may have influenced Ceremony Native Americans American Ceremony Native Americans across Ceremony Native Americans Bering Strait, all featuring pulsating vocal Ceremony Native Americans and possibly evident in Ceremony Native Americans Paleo-Siberian tribes such as Chuckchee, Yukaghir, Koryak. It Ceremony Native Americans sanctuary in their hands, and helping close by. Native Americans Online.

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