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Mesoamerican Technology

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Advanced Tech Reveals Shocking News About an Ancient Mayan City

This became the beginning of the conquest of this mighty empire by Cortez, his men, 16 horses and native allies who remarkably defeated an emperor who was capable of raising an army of , men. This defeat is often attributed, at least partially, to the power the myth of the Plumed Serpent had over the Mesoamerican peoples, including the Aztec emperor. Fall of Tenochtitlan, in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. There are many other aspects of the myth of the Plumed Serpent as well. Before we go into what the Plumed Serpent actually may have symbolized we should take note of the fact that the Serpent played a very significant mythological role in many other ancient cultures as well.

Similarly, to the aborigines in Australia the Rainbow Serpent was the main creator god and in the Amazonas the great anaconda was seen as the creator of the human beings. In fact, all over the world including in the Book of Genesis of the Bible we find the serpent revered as an especially powerful animal. This does not match what a modern person would think of as a snake, and it makes us wonder why the serpent has played such a significant role in ancient myths. It then seems that there must be some more profound reason that the Serpent, and in particular the Plumed Serpent, by ancient peoples would be recognized as a central creator deity.

As I have elaborated on in two books of mine: The Global Mind and the Rise of Civilization, and The Nine Waves of Creation , a serpent is the most natural symbol to use by anyone who would like to represent a mathematical sine wave. And what the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica and elsewhere were aware of was that history, including the rise and fall of civilizations, was driven by waves of creation. There were in fact nine waves of creation that created the universe and the pre-set direction of its evolution. The reason that the Plumed Serpent went by the name of 9 Wind was that there were nine such sine waves creating spiritual winds corresponding to nine levels of creation as symbolized by the terrace-formed pyramids.

What the ancient peoples were aware of was the nine underlying waves in the quantum field that was driving the evolution of the universe, our planet, as well as humankind. They did not use the same language for them as we would have and instead came to call this wave form the Plumed Serpent, that they perceived as a living deity. Their entire calendar came to be developed in order to chart the movements of this Plumed Serpent. If it indeed was this wave, which they perceived as and symbolized as the Plumed Serpent, that was behind the rise and fall of civilizations then it of course became of utmost importance to chart he ups and downs of this wave movement by means of the use of a calendar.

If the predictions would fail and this was indeed the case when the Aztecs became aware that the Spanish had arrived then the consequences would be disastrous. The problem of the Aztecs was then that the true Mayan calendar called the Long Count which accurately described the ups and downs of civilization Fig 2 was not used by them. Fig 2. Diagram: Carl Calleman. As we can see from Fig 2, the wave movement of the so called Long Count the sixth of the nine creation waves leading up to our own time, in principle displays the same pattern as the seven triangles of light and six triangles of darkness of the Plumed Serpent of Chichen-Itza that we can see in Fig 1; Much like a Serpent history which moves like a wave with its ups and downs that makes the pendulum often swing with them.

What may be even more remarkable is the fact that the wave movement in Fig 2, which covers seven peaks — each of a duration of a so-called baktun of years — remarkably well reflects the rise and fall of major empires and civilizations in other parts of the world. While modern people who are generally unaware of this wave movement wonder why ancient civilizations have mostly disappeared, this no longer is an enigma if we recognize that upon peaks follow valleys that often, but not always, tend to bring the already existing civilizations down.

The Plumed Serpent, i. The rise and fall of civilizations that this movement describes reflects a very profound truth of our existence and the power that drives its evolution. The ancient peoples worshipping serpents knew that history went up and down and sometimes tried to chart this movement in mythological terms or harbor the spiritual powers these were believed to embody. There were, in other words, reasons for the Aztecs who saw themselves as living in a dark age a valley to fear the shift into a peak. Likewise, they would be aware that the Plumed Serpent would sometimes molt its skin and disappear as it set an end to a civilization.

However, most people today have misunderstood not only the message of the Plumed Serpent but also its underlying truth. We may call the Plumed Serpent a myth, but in reality, it is a truth and I believe it is a truth whose time has come and may play a critical role for those that seek a path out of our civilizational crisis. By Carl Johann Calleman. Carl Johan Calleman is the author of five books based on the Mayan calendar that have been translated to fifteen languages and his known as the main proponent of the idea that the Mayan calendar reflects the evolution of consciousness.

Read More. When are we going to stop with all of the political correctness and tell the damn truth? People that know the truth are shunned as uneducated, when they are actually Holy Spirit lead. So it begins. All man are not created equal. Adamic means: ruddy, red lips, to turn flush, able to blush in the face, rosy pink, having a fair countenance, bright as the sun, bright white, Laban, ivory, white as snow, white as milk, without spots, golden, with black brown red to blonde hair, with sapphire blue veins, emerald green to sapphire blue eyes as the fish pools of Heshbon.

Eve was not wholly seduced by a reptile. Eve would not suffer during childbirth if all she did was eat an apple, or an orange, or a peach. Why not curse her a make her teeth fall out? When we turn to the Bible for knowledge and instruction, we are informed that the "beasts of the earth and field" were created among the lower "kinds of flesh" to fill their place in the Divine plan where they would be most needed.

They were given erect posture, well-developed hands and feet, articulate speech; withal, tool- making and tool-handling bipeds two-footed beasts - possessing the essential characteristics to fit them for their position as servants. The third chapter of Genesis opens with this statement: "Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. The Hebrew word translated "serpent" is nachash who, among his kind, was the most gifted. Serpents, jaguars, and raptors were depicted alongside images of human sacrifice - suggesting a connection to the divine. The exact rules of the game are unknown since the evidence available is garnered from the interpretations made from sculptures, art, ball courts, and glyphs.

Some interpretations suggest that players were spread out along the court and the ball was passed at a fast rate. Teams seemed to vary in size from two to six players, and the object was to hit a solid rubber ball across a line. On each side of a playing alley there were two long parallel walls against which a rubber ball was resounded and bounced from each team. This is similar to the game of volleyball except for the fact that players had to use their hips to return the ball and there was no net the ball had to cross a line.

The ball also had to be kept in motion, without touching the ground, and in some versions of the game it could apparently not be hit with hands or feet. Later on, the Maya culture added two stone hoops or rings in the center of the court on either side. When a player did manage to get a ball through a ring, that usually ended the game. Points were also scored when opposing ball players missed a shot at the vertical hoops placed at the center point of the side walls, were unable to return the ball to the opposing team before it had bounced a second time, or allowed the ball to bounce outside the boundaries of the court.

The team with the most points won. The large rubber ball could weigh up to three to eight pounds 1. This was about the size of a basketball, but the ball was more solid on the inside and could weigh a lot more. Because of this, it could inflict major bruises and if it hit someone in the wrong place hard enough, being struck with the heavy sphere could kill them. Players eventually began wearing equipment to prevent severe injury. The needs and style of this equipment varied over time, but most commonly headdresses or helmets were worn to protect the head, quilted cotton pads covered the elbows and knees, and stone belts known as yokes were worn around the waist or chest. The Mesoamerican ball game has its origin in the cosmos and religious beliefs of the pre-Hispanic peoples.

The most common interpretation saw the ball and its movement in the court paralleling the movement of the heavenly bodies in the sky. The game was viewed as a battle of the sun against the moon and stars - representing the principle of lightness and darkness. If a game had particular religious importance, the losing team could be sacrificed. In illustrations from Pre-Columbian books such as the Codex Borgia and on carved stone friezes decorating the walls of ballcourts at the sites of Chichen Itza and El Tajin, the decapitation of one team captain by the other, or by a priest, is clearly depicted. The sacrifice of ball-players was intimately related to the celestial cycle of the sun and moon, for both the Maya and Aztecs, as was the game itself.

One of the most important episodes in the Popol Vuh Maya creation myth mentions two sets of important gods going down into the Underworld to contest with Lords One and Seven Death, the gods of the Underworld, and afterwards being killed and transformed into celestial bodies. The sacrifice of losing teams in the ball game was a reaffirmation of this for the Maya culture, and an aspect of a contract with the Underworld which allowed the sun and moon to rise every day so long as the sacrifices were made. When the Spanish arrived in central Mexico in the 16th century, priests and conquistadors recorded their impressions of the Mesoamerican ball game.

They found that among the Aztec there was a strong connection between the ball game and beheadings. At this specific court thousands of skulls were found. But today, people in Mexico still play a variant of the game that their ancestors once did. Called Ulama , it is a game played in a few communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Ulama de Brazo is played in northern Sinaloa. Two teams of three face each other, and instead of their hips, players hit the ball with their forearms, which are protected by padding. Ulama de Cadera is found in the south of Sinaloa.

In this version of the ball game, teams tend to be made of five or more and in this case, the traditional hip is used to move the ball. Another version of the game, Ulama de Palo, is different in that the players wield a wooden racket. This particular game was a relic of the past until it was revived in the s. Furthermore, each Altepetl usually produced some form of unique trade good, meaning there were significant merchant and artisan classes. While the Aztec traded with each other and others for goods and services, agricultural trade was less common, leading to a large class of agricultural laborers.

The pre-conquest Aztecs were an empire that prospered agriculturally, and they did so without the wheel or domestic beasts of burden. They primarily practiced four methods of agriculture: rainfall cultivation , terrace agriculture , irrigation , and Chinampa. The Aztecs implemented terrace agriculture in hilly areas, typically in the highlands of the Aztec Empire. Terracing allowed for an increased soil depth and impeded soil erosion. Terraces were built by piling a wall of stones parallel to the contour of the hillside. Dirt was then filled in, creating viable, flat farmland. There were three distinct types of terrace, each used for specific circumstances: hillslope contour terraces steeper slopes , semi-terraces gentle slopes, walls were made with Maguey plants rather than stones , and cross-channel terraces.

In the valleys of the empire, irrigation farming was used. Dams diverted water from natural springs to the fields. This allowed for more regular harvests because the prosperity of an irrigated field was not dependent upon the rain. Irrigation systems had been in place long before the Aztecs. However, they built canal systems that were longer and more elaborate than any previous irrigation systems. The network of canals was very complex and intricate. In the swampy regions along Lake Xochimilco , the Aztecs implemented a unique method of crop cultivation, chinampas. They rose approximately 1 meter above the surface of the water, and were separated by narrow canals, which allowed farmers to move between them by canoe.

The chinampas were extremely fertile pieces of land, and yielded, on average, seven crops annually. Once they had germinated, they were re-planted on the chinampas. This cut the growing time down considerably. Aztec farmers could be divided into general laborers and specialists. General laborers could be slaves, menial workers, or farm hands, while specialists were responsible for things like choosing the most successful seeds and crop rotations. The Aztecs are credited with domestication of the subspecies of wild turkey , Meleagris gallopavo , which is native to this region. Aztec armed forces were typically composed of large numbers of commoners with basic military training, who were stiffened by smaller numbers of professional warriors belonging to the nobility.

The professional warriors were organized into warrior societies and often ranked according to their achievements. Prior to the fall of the Aztec, the Aztec people had a stable economy driven by a successful trade market. The trade market of the Aztec people was not only important to commerce, but also to the socialization, as the markets provided a place for the people to exchange information within their regions. This type of trade market was used primarily for locally produced goods, as there was not much traveling needed to exchange goods at the market.

With no domestic animals as an effective way to transport goods, the local markets were an essential part of Aztec commerce. However, the Aztec nobility obtained much of their merchandise from neighboring highland basins, distant places within the empire, and from land beyond the empire therefore creating the need for a long-distance trade organization. The long-distance trade was carried out by merchants called pochteca, who were defined by their positions within the system. These professional merchants occupied a high status in Aztec society, below the noble class. The pochteca were responsible for providing the materials that the noble class used to display their wealth.

These materials were often obtained from foreign sources. Due to the success of the pochteca, many of the merchants became as wealthy as the noble class, but were obligated to hide this wealth from the public. The highest officials of the pochteca were the pochteca tlatoque. The pochteca tlatoque were the elder of the pochteca, and were no longer travelers, but rather acted as administrators, overseeing young pochteca and administering the marketplace. These people were often referred to as the richest of merchants, as they played a central role in capturing the slaves used for sacrificial victims.

The third group of long-distance traders was the tencunenenque, who worked for the rulers by carrying out personal trade. A group of trader spies, known as the natural oztomeca, made up the last group of pochteca. The natural oztomeca were forced to disguise themselves as they traveled, as they sought after rare goods. The natural oztomeca were also used for gathering information at the markets and reporting the information to the higher levels of pochteca.

All trade throughout the Aztec Empire was regulated by officers who patrolled the markets to ensure that the buyers were not being cheated by the merchants. Because markets were so numerous, in large cities reaching upwards of 20, people, the organization was crucial, and the Aztecs were able to create a successful market due to the success of enforcing the laws of the empire. The Mexica , the founders and dominant group of the Aztec Empire, were one of the first people in the world to have mandatory education for nearly all children, regardless of gender, rank, or station.

Until the age of fourteen, the education of children was in the hands of their parents, but supervised by the authorities of their calpulli. Periodically they attended their local temples, to test their progress. Part of this education involved learning a collection of sayings, called huehuetlatolli "The sayings of the old" , that embodied the Aztecs' ideals. It included speeches and sayings for every occasion, the words to salute the birth of children, and to say farewell at death. Fathers admonished their daughters [17] to be respectful and very clean, but not to use makeup, because they would look like ahuianis. Boys were admonished to be humble, obedient and hard workers. Judging by their language, most of the huehuetlatolli seemed to have evolved over several centuries, predating the Aztecs and most likely adopted from other Nahua cultures.

Children were taught at home until about 15 years of age, but all Aztec children, boys and girls, were expected to attend school for some time when they were between 10 and 20 years old. Boys and girls went to school at age There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli , for practical and military studies, and the calmecac , for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas. The two institutions seem to be common to the Nahua people, leading some experts to suggest that they are older than the Aztec culture. Each calpulli specialized in some handicrafts, and this was an important part of the income of the city. The teaching of handicraft was highly valued. The healers tizitl had several specialities.

Some were trained to just inspect and classify medicinal plants, others were trained in the preparation of medicines that were sold in special places tlapalli. More than a hundred preparations are known, including deodorants, remedies for smelly feet, dentifric paste etc. Also there were tizitl specialized in surgery, digestive diseases, teeth and nose, skin diseases, etc. Aztec teachers tlamatimine propounded a spartan regime of education — cold baths in the morning, hard work, physical punishment, bleeding with maguey thorns and endurance tests — with the purpose of forming a stoical people.

There is contradictory information about whether calmecac was reserved for the sons and daughters of the pillis ; some accounts said they could choose where to study. Girls were educated in the crafts of home and child raising. Female tizitl would treat women throughout their reproductive life.

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