⌚ Two Paths Poem

Monday, January 03, 2022 10:08:49 PM

Two Paths Poem

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'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' - Robert Frost (Powerful Life Poetry)

The smooth iambic pentameter mimics a heartbeat or gentle stroll across the land, both of which would fit Mackellars purpose in writing the poem. However, in this poem, the colorful imagery that Mackellar uses to describe the land that she loves would suggest that she feels more than a simple, patriotic tie to the land. The land becomes a hypperbole for her. In stanza four, line one she writes, "Core of my heart, my country!

Instead, her country is metaphorically part of her being, a part that cannot be divorced from the woman, lest she die. As one cannot live without the heart, so she cannot live without Australia. She, therefore, becomes the land of "Rainbow Gold" ; she becomes the "Opal-hearted country". As an opal is filled with fire-like brilliance, so too is Mackellar. Yet, trying to understand her is as futile as trying to understand the country she loves. She creates a stark contrast in stanza one when she states,. Strong love of grey-blue distance Brown streams and soft dimmed skies I know but cannot share it My love is otherwise. She acknowledges her own inability to understand the land that others love, the land to which they might feel tied.

However, in the same respect, she also understands that those same people will never be able to understand her, either. Inthe last stanza she reinforces this thought when she states,. An opal-hearted country A willful, lavish land All you who have not loved her You will not understand. Mackellar uses Australia as metaphor for herself. She is the land and just as difficult to fathom as the rainbow. Throughout the entire poem, Mackellar uses colorimagery to enhance the visual effect of her words. Mackellar also uses an immense amount of earth imagery, reinforcing her own connection to the land. She speaks of mountains, bushes, plains, ranges, soil, and many other tangible pieces of the puzzle, which is Australia.

By referencing these aspects of the land, she allows her reader to connect with Australia in a literal fashion, but with Mackellar as Australia in a metaphorical fashion, too. Thorpe as published in the The International Lesson Hymnal. Aviv suggests that the source of the modern "Footprints" allegory is the opening paragraph of Charles Haddon Spurgeon 's sermon "The Education of the Sons of God".

And did you suddenly pull up short as you noticed, in the sand, the footprints of a man? I remember right well passing through that experience; and when I looked, lo! So I thought to myself, 'If he has been here, it is a desert island no longer. In , an American encyclopedia of hymns by female writers included Jetty Vogel, an English poet. Vogel's "At the Portal" follows someone looking at their footprints as they deviate from the proper path.

Vogel's hymn has an angel's footsteps but lacks the "I carried you" of the modern "Footprints". In , Mormon publication The Children's Friend re-published the Loughead piece credited, but misspelled "Laughead" , ensuring a wider distribution in the western states. Veneklasen's poem appeared occasionally in newspaper obituaries, commonly lacking attribution, and often with the decease substituted for "I". Sullivan titled "Footprints". This was a bit of romantic verse that moves from sadness at "lone footprints in the sand" to close with "our footprints in the sand". The earliest known formally dated publications of any variants of the poem are from , with three different descriptions of the person and also the setting.

The first to appear in July , in a small Iowa town newspaper, is a very concise six-sentence version featuring an "elderly man" and "rocky roads". The second and most complete early appearance was in a September issue of Evangel , a semi-monthly Church of God publication. A third version appeared in October , in two California papers, first in Oakland [27] and twelve days later in Shafter, [28] with a "young woman" and a "sandy pathway" in a "desert wilderness". This version does not appear to have re-emerged later. In , additional appearances occurred: two in small Louisiana and Mississippi newspapers, one in a Catholic journal, two in widely syndicated newspapers columns, one on a nationwide radio program and reprinted by two small papers, and one in a prominent evangelist's biography.

In January , the Opelousas, Louisiana, Daily World published a near exact Carty version but with a "My dear child" mutation at the end, and no attribution. In March, the Winona Times presented a Powers-like version with "a certain elderly man He was "sorely troubled and his life had been at its saddest and lowest ebb. The March issue of Liguorian , a monthly publication of the Catholic Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer , published a complete, nearly unmodified first-person version following Carty, but attributed to "Author Unknown".

Christian televangelist and columnist Robert Schuller noted in his column that a reader had sent him a story; it is unclear whether the version presented in the column—which casts a "pilgrim" as the human character—was used verbatim or was rewritten by Schuller: this particular version has not been re-published after the column's original nationwide publication during March—August, In April , the Havre Daily News in Montana published a variant of the Carty version told in first person with slightly different punctuation and a "never, never" alteration to match the "precious, precious child" of the previous sentence.

The author of the local weekly column noted that it had been supplied by a friend who had "first heard [it] when Paul Harvey quoted it on his radio program. Harvey or elsewhere. No recordings or transcriptions of Mr. Harvey's daily radio news and commentary broadcasts are known to have survived. A verbatim copy of the Havre instance ran in a small, inmate-produced newsletter published by the Napa State Hospital , in July Advice columnist Ann Landers [35] published an exact copy of the Stevenson version in July The column indicates that the correspondent who provided the work, claims to have carried a tattered copy around "for years" with no further explanation of its publication source.

She printed the piece again in late February in response to reader demand and noted that it had also appeared in Reader's Digest. Christian televangelist Jerry Falwell 's biography, Jerry Falwell: Aflame for God , opens a chapter with an expanded "a man dreamed" version. Humorist and columnist Erma Bombeck [38] published a condensed version of Stevenson's variant in July During the United States presidential campaign, Ronald Reagan used a variant of "Footprints", with himself as the human, as the closing lines in an August speech to evangelical leaders in Dallas, Texas.

In , Cristy Lane released country gospel version of the song called "Footprints in the Sand". The song peaked at No. Christian chart. In , Ken Brown published a version of the poem in rhyme and rhythm as opposed to the more commonly known free form versions popular today. In the song, the Lord explains the fact that there is only one set of footprints this way: "During your times of trial and suffering, when you see only one set of footprints, that must have been when I was appearing on. Junior Kick Start!

The poem was also the inspiration and chorus for the G-Unit song "Footprints", from their debut album "Beg For Mercy". The poem was used in the memorial service for Air France Flight on 3 June In , a larger-than-life sculpture inspired by the poem was installed at Pippen Memorial Park in Carthage, Texas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Footprints in the Sand disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved The Washington Post. ISBN To perform that task, the network software organizes the data being moved into Ethernet frames. Frames travel over Ethernet networks, and the data field of a frame is used to carry data between computers. Frames are nothing more than arbitrary sequences of information whose format is defined in a standard. The format for an Ethernet frame includes a destination address at the beginning, containing the address of the device to which the frame is being sent. The addresses are followed by various other fields, including the data field that carries the data being sent between computers, as shown in Figure The seven-layer model was developed to organize the kinds of information sent between computers.

It is used to define how that information will be sent and to structure the development of standards for transferring information. Since Ethernet switches operate on local area network frames at the Data Link Layer, you will sometimes hear them called link layer devices, as well as Layer 2 devices or Layer 2 switches. Ethernet switches are designed so that their operations are invisible to the devices on the network, which explains why this approach to linking networks is also called transparent bridging. The switch will automatically begin working without requiring any configuration on the switch or any changes on the part of the computers connected to the Ethernet network, making the operation of the switch transparent to them.

Next, we will look at the basic functions used in a bridge to make it possible to forward Ethernet frames from one port to another. An Ethernet switch controls the transmission of frames between switch ports connected to Ethernet cables using the traffic forwarding rules described in the IEEE Traffic forwarding is based on address learning. Switches make traffic forwarding decisions based on the bit media access control MAC addresses used in LAN standards, including Ethernet.

To do this, the switch learns which devices, called stations in the standard, are on which segments of the network by looking at the source addresses in all of the frames it receives. When an Ethernet device sends a frame, it puts two addresses in the frame. These two addresses are the destination address of the device it is sending the frame to, and the source address, which is the address of the device sending the frame. Like all Ethernet interfaces, every port on a switch has a unique factory-assigned MAC address. However, unlike a normal Ethernet device that accepts only frames addressed directed to it, the Ethernet interface located in each port of a switch runs in promiscuous mode. In this mode, the interface is programmed to receive all frames it sees on that port, not just the frames that are being sent to the MAC address of the Ethernet interface on that switch port.

As each frame is received on each port, the switching software looks at the source address of the frame and adds that source address to a table of addresses that the switch maintains. This is how the switch automatically discovers which stations are reachable on which ports. Figure shows a switch linking six Ethernet devices. As stations send traffic, the switch receives every frame sent and builds a table, more formally called a forwarding database , that shows which stations can be reached on which ports.

After every station has transmitted at least one frame, the switch will end up with a forwarding database such as that shown in Table This database is used by the switch to make a packet forwarding decision in a process called adaptive filtering. Without an address database, the switch would have to send traffic received on any given port out all other ports to ensure that it reached its destination. With the address database, the traffic is filtered according to its destination. This ability to learn makes it possible for you to add new stations to your network without having to manually configure the switch to know about the new stations, or the stations to know about the switch. Once the switch has built a database of addresses, it has all the information it needs to filter and forward traffic selectively.

While the switch is learning addresses, it is also checking each frame to make a packet forwarding decision based on the destination address in the frame. Assume that a frame is sent from station 15 to station Since the frame is sent by station 15, the switch reads the frame in on port 6 and uses its address database to determine which of its ports is associated with the destination address in this frame. Here, the destination address corresponds to station 20, and the address database shows that to reach station 20, the frame must be sent out port 2.

Each port in the switch has the ability to hold frames in memory, before transmitting them onto the Ethernet cable connected to the port. For example, if the port is already busy transmitting when a frame arrives for transmission, then the frame can be held for the short time it takes for the port to complete transmitting the previous frame. To transmit the frame, the switch places the frame into the packet switching queue for transmission on port 2. During this process, a switch transmitting an Ethernet frame from one port to another makes no changes to the data, addresses, or other fields of the basic Ethernet frame. Using our example, the frame is transmitted intact on port 2 exactly as it was received on port 6.

Therefore, the operation of the switch is transparent to all stations on the network. Note that the switch will not forward a frame destined for a station that is in the forwarding database onto a port unless that port is connected to the target destination. In other words, traffic destined for a device on a given port will only be sent to that port; no other ports will see the traffic intended for that device. This switching logic keeps traffic isolated to only those Ethernet cables, or segments, needed to receive the frame from the sender and transmit that frame to the destination device.

This prevents the flow of unnecessary traffic on other segments of the network system, which is a major advantage of a switch. This is in contrast to the early Ethernet system, where traffic from any station was seen by all other stations, whether they wanted the data or not. Switch traffic filtering reduces the traffic load carried by the set of Ethernet cables connected to the switch, thereby making more efficient use of the network bandwidth. Switches automatically age out entries in their forwarding database after a period of time—typically five minutes—if they do not see any frames from a station.

This keeps the forwarding database from growing full of stale entries that might not reflect reality. This also happens when a station is newly connected to a switch, or when a station has been powered off and is turned back on more than five minutes later. So how does the switch handle packet forwarding for an unknown station? The solution is simple: the switch forwards the frame destined for an unknown station out all switch ports other than the one it was received on, thus flooding the frame to all other stations. Flooding the frame guarantees that a frame with an unknown destination address will reach all network connections and be heard by the correct destination device, assuming that it is active and on the network.

When the unknown device responds with return traffic, the switch will automatically learn which port the device is on, and will no longer flood traffic destined to that device. In addition to transmitting frames directed to a single address, local area networks are capable of sending frames directed to a group address, called a multicast address , which can be received by a group of stations. They can also send frames directed to all stations, using the broadcast address. Group addresses always begin with a specific bit pattern defined in the Ethernet standard, making it possible for a switch to determine which frames are destined for a specific device rather than a group of devices.

A frame sent to a multicast destination address can be received by all stations configured to listen for that multicast address. The Ethernet interface address assigned at the factory is called a unicast address, and any given Ethernet interface can receive unicast frames and multicast frames. In other words, the interface can be programmed to receive frames sent to one or more multicast group addresses, as well as frames sent to the unicast MAC address belonging to that interface.

The broadcast address is a special multicast group: the group of all of the stations in the network. A packet sent to the broadcast address the address of all 1s is received by every station on the LAN. This way, a broadcast packet sent by any station will reach all other stations on the LAN. Multicast traffic can be more difficult to deal with than broadcast frames. More sophisticated and usually more expensive switches include support for multicast group discovery protocols that make it possible for each station to tell the switch about the multicast group addresses that it wants to hear, so the switch will send the multicast packets only to the ports connected to stations that have indicated their interest in receiving the multicast traffic.

However, lower cost switches, with no capability to discover which ports are connected to stations listening to a given multicast address, must resort to flooding multicast packets out all ports other than the port on which the multicast traffic was received, just like broadcast packets. Stations send broadcast and multicast packets for a number of reasons. Broadcasts and multicasts are also used for dynamic address assignment, which occurs when a station is first powered on and needs to find a high-level network address.

Multicasts are also used by certain multimedia applications, which send audio and video data in multicast frames for reception by groups of stations, and by multi-user games as a way of sending data to a group of game players. Therefore, a typical network will have some level of broadcast and multicast traffic. However, when many stations are combined by switches into a single large network, broadcast and multicast flooding by the switches can result in significant amounts of traffic. Large amounts of broadcast or multicast traffic may cause network congestion, since every device on the network is required to receive and process broadcasts and specific types of multicasts; at high enough packet rates, there could be performance issues for the stations.

Streaming applications video sending high rates of multicasts can generate intense traffic. Disk backup and disk duplication systems based on multicast can also generate lots of traffic. If this traffic ends up being flooded to all ports, the network could congest. One way to avoid this congestion is to limit the total number of stations linked to a single network, so that the broadcast and multicast rate does not get so high as to be a problem. Yet another method is to use a router, also called a Layer 3 switch.

Since a router does not automatically forward broadcasts and multicasts, this creates separate network systems. A major difficulty with this simple model of switch operation is that multiple connections between switches can create loop paths, leading to network congestion and overload. The design and operation of Ethernet requires that only a single packet transmission path may exist between any two stations. An Ethernet grows by extending branches in a network topology called a tree structure, which consists of multiple switches branching off of a central switch. The danger is that, in a sufficiently complex network, switches with multiple inter-switch connections can create loop paths in the network.

On a network with switches connected together to form a packet forwarding loop, packets will circulate endlessly around the loop, building up to very high levels of traffic and causing an overload. The looped packets will circulate at the maximum rate of the network links, until the traffic rate gets so high that the network is saturated. Broadcast and multicast frames, as well as unicast frames to unknown destinations, are normally flooded to all ports in a basic switch, and all of this traffic will circulate in such a loop.

Once a loop is formed, this failure mode can happen very rapidly, causing the network to be fully occupied with sending broadcast, multicast, and unknown frames, and it becomes very difficult for stations to send actual traffic. Unfortunately, loops like the dotted path shown with arrows in Figure are all too easy to achieve, despite your best efforts to avoid them. As networks grow to include more switches and more wiring closets, it becomes difficult to know exactly how things are connected together and to keep people from mistakenly creating a loop path. While the loop in the drawing is intended to be obvious, in a sufficiently complex network system it can be challenging for anyone working on the network to know whether or not the switches are connected in such a way as to create loop paths.

The IEEE The purpose of the spanning tree protocol STP is to allow switches to automatically create a loop-free set of paths, even in a complex network with multiple paths connecting multiple switches.

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