⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Summary Of NYPD Red 2
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The Breakdown: NYPD Red by James Patterson and Marshall Karp
Whose hands were those in the bathroom in the fourth season finale? A lot of people seemed to think that there was a mysterious third person in the bathroom when Bobby and Diane had sex near the end of the fourth season finale "A Draining Experience. I'll leave the rest up to your imaginations. Having Shannon be the shooter makes perfect sense and explains his motivation for suspending Bobby: he realized that someone was on to his extracurricular activities, and the only way to cover his tracks was to 1 Suspend Simone which any clean IAB cop would do if a cop refused to cooperate to the extent Bobby did , and 2 Take out Salvo so he couldn't cut a deal at a later date to give away Shannon.
As for why Andy behaved so strangely during the cliffhanger at the end of season four, try not to think about it so hard; some might say the writers didn't. One of the most fiercely-debated moments on the show in fandom history was a scene towards the end of "Seminal Thinking," the next-to-last episode of the fifth season. As you may remember, a subplot of the show involved Medavoy impressing everyone with his skillful bluffs in interrogation of a perverted murderer. After receiving kudos from everyone in the squad and the mention of a possible commendation from Lt.
Fancy, Greg went into the locker room and started studying himself in the mirror. He also started doing some sort of odd gesture with his sleeve, which was interpreted by Internet fans as either A Pinching himself to see if this was all real; B Imagining what his uniform sleeve would look like with the commendation; or C Touching himself to see if he was hot James had joked earlier that he was afraid to touch Greg, because he was so hot in interrogation. The official answer is A , according to Gordon Clapp, who ought to know -- he plays Medavoy.
He also admits that they did a number of takes of that scene, and that the one used in the episode was not the most clear. While romantic relationships between cops who work in the same precinct are taboo, the show has always danced back and forth over that official line. Lesniak, for instance, was transferred into the One-Five after an intersquad romance went sour, but it was always implied that Fancy knew about Bobby and Diane's relationship but chose not to do anything about it.
The first time the show directly addressed the question of what Fancy did and didn't know, ironically, was in the first episode after Bobby's death, when Danny Sorenson asked Fancy why Bobby and Diane were allowed to work together; "The Job was never officially notified," was Fancy's simple response. When Andy started openly dating Connie at the same time John was openly dating Rita, the writers apparently decided that good bosses like Fancy and Rodriguez only enforce that particular rule when it starts stirring up trouble with the job. You could look at Lesniak's transfer, for instance, as the result not of her relationship with a squadmate, but the ugly breakup of it. So long as Andy and Connie didn't start having arguments in front of the fishtank or compromising their work in the field, Rodriguez let it slide.
But that kind of latitude is an unofficial thing. Late in the 10th season, Andy and Connie investigated the possibility of getting married and staying in the same squad and realized they would have to keep the marriage a secret or face at least one transfer. Click here for a copy of the vows Bobby and Diane recited during their civil ceremony. To play the part, he had to take a considerable amount of time off from NYPD Blue , but since not much had been done with his character before the sabbatical, he -- and we -- probably didn't miss out on much. Martinez's temporary absence on the show was explained by having him throw out his back. At the start of the sixth season, all the regulars began wearing identical pins on their lapel.
Some eagle-eyed viewers have noted that certain scenes feature our heroes wearing their shields upside down, which would seem to be in direct contradiction to the uniform code. Once again, we go straight to Bill Clark for the answer. According to Bill, the shields are only upside-down during outdoor cold weather scenes. The badgeholder is designed to fit into a suit jacket or shirt-pocket lapel so that it appears right side up, but with an overcoat it's trickier. Instead, you have to clip it onto the outside of the coat, and the clip, for whatever reason, is designed in such a way that the shield hangs upside down. No disrespect intended; that's the way they're made.
Dornan could get demoted to Detective in the sixth season. Here's how it works: everyone starts out as a uniformed Officer. Cops get to be Detectives through appointments, either for good work or because a particular boss takes a liking to them. Both uniform cops and plainclothes cops can take the Sergeant's exam, which is a straight written exam; each time the exam is given, the department decides that a certain percentage of the testees will be promoted when James took it, his score was 67th on the list, and the department was promoting the people with the top scores.
As a sergeant, James goes back in uniform, but he works regular hours, makes more money and outranks his old pals except for Fancy. One side note to the question of rank: while Sergeants technically outrank Detectives, a Detective First-Grade has a bigger salary than a Sergeant. It's unclear whether Andy's paycheck went down after his promotion. During Rick Schroder's first few episodes on the show, the writers introduced the idea that when Danny gets emotionally "stirred up," he deals with it in part by grabbing office supplies -- usually paperclips -- and sticking them in his shirt pocket.
And on one occasion, after getting a particular problem off his chest, we actually saw him take the clips out of his pocket and put them back in their caddy on his desk. At least one therapist who watches the show says this means that Danny had Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, which is a more mild version of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. The baby that Bobby and Diane conceived during season five's "It Takes a Village" didn't last long; Diane miscarried eight episodes later, in "Weaver of Hate.
All that dream imagery could get complicated, especially since we didn't even know if Patsy had died since the last time we saw him, but the implication seemed to be that the baby that Diane had miscarried was living on -- and growing up -- in Heaven, where Bobby was headed. Between Charlotte Ross' desire to stay home with her own new baby, the lower budget for this season and some other professional issues between Charlotte and the rest of the cast and crew, she won't be coming back at any point.
So Connie is home with the kids, or out of the room when we see Andy at home with Theo. They're still married; we just don't see her anymore. Like James McDaniel before him, Esai eventually grew frustrated with the limitations of playing the boss on a show about detectives and asked out of his contract. When Kim Delaney left NYPD Blue after the eighth season to star in Philly -- a series specifically created for her by Steven Bochco, who felt that Blue couldn't showcase her talents enough -- it was with the agreement that Kim could return to Blue if the new show was canceled quickly.
It later turned out that Kim's contract defined "quickly" as "in 13 episodes or less. According to Bochco, he realized that Diane no longer fit in with the other characters and decided not to bring Kim back, at which point she took a job as David Caruso's partner on CSI: Miami. According to Kim, the CSI offer came very shortly after Philly was canceled, and that she didn't have a chance to discuss a Blue return with Bochco. Kim was essentially fired from CSI: Miami after only ten episodes, and she returned to Blue for an episode near the end of the 10th season.
The guest appearance was originally planned as a one-shot deal, but it was so well-received that she returned for a four-episode arc early in the 11th season. Smits came in as a last-minute replacement for David Caruso, and signed a four-year contract in doing so. When the end of that contract was nearing, he decided it was "time to move on.
Jimmy's currently working on a few movies, and has a deal to do another series at ABC in the not-too-distant future. Caruso's decision was not a particularly wise one, at least at first. His first film as a leading man, Kiss of Death , received good reviews for his performance, but did lousy at the box office. His second film, Jade, didn't even get the good reviews. Add that to his reportedly difficult behavior, and he quickly found the well of leading roles dry. He was offered a role on a new legal drama in development for CBS, but had to plead with Steven Bochco to let him out of the agreement he signed when he quit Blue which said he couldn't work in television until his original contract ran out.
On the plus side for Caruso, his mostly humble behavior on and off the set of the show went a long way towards rehabilitating his image within the industry, and recent conciliatory comments from both Caruso and Milch suggest the two men might work together again someday. As for the comments from certain fans that they'd like to see Caruso come back, it was never, ever, going to happen for two reasons: 1 Storywise, Kelly quit the force in disgrace and would not be allowed to simply return at his former rank and position; and more importantly, 2 Bochco has said, over and over and over again, that he would never bring Caruso back under any circumstances.
According to a section of True Blue, Milch's book about the early seasons of the show, the writers quickly ran out of room for the character of Laura Kelly, especially once they realized the chemistry between Dennis Franz and Sharon Lawrence and began writing more scenes for Sylvia Costas. Sherry was a good sport about it, and went to Bochco and Milch with the suggestion that letting her out of her contract might be the best for everyone. They did so, and Sherry got a job as Dr.
Sherry left Blue because she didn't have enough to do; two and a half years later, she would leave ER because she had too much to do, and wanted to settle down and have a normal life again -- only to decide that wasn't for her, either, at which point she re-upped with ER. My character demanded so much attention, and without David Caruso what was I?
They tried putting Janice behind a desk. But she's a mob chick. So they wrote me off the show. There's not a lot you can write about the squad secretary, and once Greg and Donna broke up, Gail's role on the show shrank so much that sometimes weeks would go by without her saying anything. Fox offered her own sitcom -- she made a pilot, but it didn't get picked up -- and she decided it was time to move on. She's been working in movies lately, and even returned to Blue for a brief cameo in the sixth season episode "Mister Roberts. While some thought was given to bringing back Bill Brochtrup to reprise his "Upstairs John" character Brochtrup having filled in while O'Grady was filming a TV-movie in season two , Milch wanted to try out a variety of characters in that setting.
Meanwhile, Bochco first put Brochtrup on his short-lived Public Morals sitcom, then his slightly-less short-lived Total Security drama. In the interim, a string of actresses sat in the PAA chair -- most of them coming to bad endings -- and Brochtrup came back for good. The death of Sylvia in a courtroom shooting at the end of the sixth season actually marked Sharon Lawrence's third exit from the show, though this one should be permanent. Never satisfied by the size of her role -- and very vocal about it, to both producers and reporters -- Sharon left after the fourth season to star in a sitcom on NBC. She had agreed to return to Blue whenever needed as a condition of getting out of her contract, but she was actually only available once during the time when "Fired Up" was on the air.
When NBC canceled it, Sharon returned to Blue on a semi-regular basis from the middle of season five through the middle of season six. But she was still displeased about the quantity and quality of her storylines, and decided she'd had enough, making a point to show up at a reception ABC was holding for reporters to get the word out that she wouldn't return without significantly better material. Eventually, Sharon and the producers reached enough of an accord to bring her back for a two-episode stint at the end of the sixth season so Sylvia could be written out for good.
Though he was one of only three castmembers who'd been with the show from the beginning Dennis Franz and James McDaniel are the other two , Nick really hadn't been given a whole lot to do since David Caruso -- who played Martinez's mentor John Kelly -- left at the start of season two. He's tried to develop several sitcoms, without much luck getting them on the air. No one has said anything publicly, but it's not hard to extrapolate that Justine wasn't happy with the mess that was made of her character in the third season.
Some rumors have floated that she was difficult to work with; others claim the producers just wanted to rid themselves of a character they'd written into a corner. Whatever the truth may be, Lesniak's departure remains equally mysterious, with no on-screen mention of her departure and only one overall reference in the years since, to her feigned lesbianism. As Justine Miceli puts it, "I went out for coffee one day and never came back! As for Justine herself, she's been working as a TV guest star since, most notably as George's girlfriend in the backwards-moving episode of Seinfeld.
She's also done a number of commercials, including one for shampoo, and another for nicotine gum. Andrea quit in part because she was couldn't take the stress of the last-minute pace of the show, as well as the amount of time it kept her away from her family. But the main reason she's gone is because, at 40, she wanted out of the acting business to pursue a career in TV journalism. After a one-year stint as a reporter for a local station in New Mexico, she had a controversial, widely-panned stint as an anchorwoman for CNN's Headline News, which she left after seven months. She's now working for Court TV. After seven seasons of sitting in Lt. Fancy's office feeling frustrated over the size of his role, James McDaniel decided it was time to go.
The producers, eager to add as many new faces as possible to their aging show, agreed to let McDaniel leave midway through season eight, replacing him with Esai Morales as the new squad boss. After nearly three seasons on the show, Rick declared that he wasn't happy spending so much time in Los Angeles away from his wife and kids and the family ranch. Bochco agreed to let Rick out of his contract. This was true to a point, but only half the story. As Rick recently revealed, his wife had a late-term miscarriage during his third season on the show, and he decided he needed to be home for a while to help her get over the trauma. Technically, no. In every other way, yes. Medavoy didn't appear until the third episode, which makes Dennis Franz the only original castmember to make it all the way through from the pilot to the finale.
But 12 years later, I'm thinking those first two episodes shouldn't be held against Gordon. So I'm changing my answer to yes. Going into the final season, the producers had a mandate to both trim the budget and freshen up the show. All three were dropped Jessalyn after only appearing in six episodes because the writers felt the characters Eddie Gibson, Valerie Haywood and Kelly Ronson, respectively weren't really clicking.
There used to be a list of credits for the cast, but that became unwieldy. If you're reading the HTML version of this FAQ, simply scroll to the character biography section and click on the names of the actors to get to their bios on the Internet Movie Database. Please refer to the episode guide for full cast listings for each episode. You will also notice, while you're checking the episode guide, that some actors keep turning up in various roles. That's because the casting people at Bochco Productions have certain personal favorites, who they like to bring back from time to time, hoping that the year or two that's passed since their last role will mean most fans won't notice the recycling. If you don't like this practice, bear in mind that without it, Dennis Franz never would've played Norm Buntz on Hill Street Blues he'd played another character several years before , and therefore likely never would have been cast as Sipowicz.
Ditto Charlotte Ross as Connie, since she played a cop's wife a few seasons earlier. His brother is John Turturro. She and Nicholas both appeared in 's independent film Men Lie. A better question might be, which haven't? James McDaniel, Nicholas Turturro, Gordon Clapp and Garcelle Beauvais have all appeared topless or in very revealing underwear, making Bill Brochtrup the only longtime regular to always appear fully-clothed. Clapp actually shot a full nude scene, but it got cut in the wake of Janet Jackson's "wardrobe malfunction" at the Super Bowl. Well, the fact that their last names are spelled differently ought to be all the answer you need.
No, they are not related, though people occasionally confuse the two because of the similar last name and the fact that both appeared on TV shows about Vietnam at roughly the same time Kim on Tour of Duty and Dana on China Beach. Sort of. David Schwimmer, who plays the neurotic Ross, appeared on the first four episodes of NYPD Blue 's first season as Josh "4B" Goldstein, a lawyer with a crush on Laura Kelly who attempted to become a vigilante after he was mugged in his building's laundry room. There are several. Alan maintains the one where this FAQ was born. Absolutely nothing, both positively and negatively. The site is not going anywhere, but odds are that it won't be updated again, with one exception: if there is ever any news about future DVD sets, I'll post it here.
Beyond that, there really won't be anything else to do. I've devoted 11 years to this website, and I'm a bit tired. The show is over, and while a few sections of this website are still uncomplete -- the season one reviews, biographies of a few of the later actors and characters -- I feel comfortable leaving things be. If you have a question that isn't here or in the long version of the FAQ, or if you just want to send along a comment, feel free.
Sorry, but no. Our lives are both much busier than they were when we each began this job, and the last few years, we've been barely able to squeeze in some reviewing time out of loyalty and a desire to finish what we started. In an ideal world, Amanda would move on to reviewing "Deadwood" and I'd be writing up "The Wire" or vice versa , but jobs and families have to take precedence now.
Long story short: we really loved the show and wanted to write about it. Long story longer: I wrote about the origin of the website and these reviews in my review of the final season premiere. Amanda wrote something similar in her review of the series finale. It is called alt. Note however, that many sites don't carry the full range of alt. If you can't access it, you could try politely asking the person in charge of news at your site to try and get it.
If that doesn't work, you can also access discussion by going to groups. You can subscribe by sending a blank e-mail to: nypd-blue-subscribe makelist. You can unsubscribe by sending a blank e-mail to nypd-blue-unsubscribe makelist. There is also an archive of every single post to the list since its inception. With suggestions from a lot of people on alt.
Yes, mostly to be found at ABC's official site and at nypdblue. Post a message to the newsgroup asking if someone has the tape and is willing to loan it to you. Please do not e-mail Alan or Amanda; while we all have nearly complete collections, we don't have the time to either loan out tapes or make copies of them. I will delete any requests without responding. He's now an executive producer. If you ever see Clark's name in the "Story by" credits of a given episode a more or less regular occurrence these days , then one or more of the cases in that show are based on a real-life event.
While Clark is a real stickler for detail, he also understands the demands of TV storytelling, which is why the events on the show often seem time-compressed. Cases that are solved in the traditional two-day span of an episode often took weeks or months to play out in reality, even if all the incidents portrayed in the show happened in real life. For example, the story about James getting shot in the third season premiere actually happened, with Clark in the Bobby role as the man who blew the whistle on the DA's deal with the shooter, but the whole thing took place over several months.
This one comes up a lot, though, ironically, it's Steven Bochco's own fault that viewers complain so much about it. On Hill Street Blues , every single suspect brought into the station was quickly rushed into the protection of noble public defender Joyce Davenport, leading all TV cop show fans to assume that all suspects automatically made use of their Miranda rights to counsel. According to NYPD Blue producer and former real-life NYPD homicide detective Bill Clark see above , in real life, suspects understand their rights, but often choose not to exercise them out of naive optimism.
They figure that if they ask for a lawyer, they'll be stuck in the legal system and therefore in lock-up for at least 48 hours, and if they weren't being looked at hard as a suspect before, the cops are really going to bear down on them now. Whether Clark is exaggerating the truth a bit in order to make the show seem more plausible is unknown, but that's their story and they're sticking to it. The detectives work in the fictional 15th precinct, which covers an area larger than your average real NYPD precinct, including parts of Chinatown, Little Italy, the East Village and Alphabet City for the non-New Yorkers, all these neighborhoods are on the lower east side of Manhattan.
The 9th Precinct was recently moved to a location further east, and the familiar building went empty for a few years before the city finally demolished it. While most cops in the NYPD, as well as every other major American law-enforcement agency, have shifted over to more modern semi-automatic weapons that fire more shots, with greater range and accuracy, Andy still clings to his old-fashioned police special. That's because the NYPD has a grandfather clause allowing veteran cops to continue using the older, smaller weapon if they so choose.
I don't know how many real-life cops actually choose to take advantage of that, but for the show, the use of the. The show features a lot of police slang and terminology that may be confusing to the average citizen. So, to make your viewing experience easier and more informative, here's a brief glossary of police slang. Skel: 1. Short-hand for "skeleton"; i. A derogatory term used to describe low-life junkies. Also refers to homeless vagrants. William Safire informs us that "it is a shortening of skellum meaning a rascal or thief, akin to a skelder, 'to beg on the streets,' first us ed in print by Ben Jonson in , just after the playwright got out of jail for killing a man in a duel; it is possible he picked up the word from cellmate's argot.
Skell is now in popular speech to denote the homeless that are so visible throughout the city. DOA: Traditionally means "dead on arrival"; here it's used to refer to just about any dead person, murdered or otherwise. BCI: Bureau of Criminal Information; the place where fingerprints are checked against criminal records. Hump: 1. Your ass; "He's gotta bust my hump over this petty crap? A moron; "That stupid hump scratched my car! Juice: Influence; i. Reaching Out: Can mean anything from just contacting someone to trying to convince them to help the cops to seeing if they need help.
RMP is the "official" term used to name a police car, while most patrolman affectionately nicknamed the cars: radio cars. Boss: Term for senior officers, from lieutenant in certain units to captain, deputy inspector, inspector and commissioner. EDP: Emotionally Disturbed Person, the politically-correct way to what was once referred as a "psycho". Flying; to fly : Leaving the confines of one's usual precinct in order to fill in for a shortage of manpower in another precinct or location. Paying the rent : For police officers, the handing out of a certain number of traffic summonses and moving violations. Sector : Subdivision within a precinct, which covers several blocks. A sector car is assigned to patrol the area see RMP above.
Stuff to Buy Are there any books about the show? He shares author's credit with Bill Clark, a former NYPD detective who now serves as an executive producer on the show. The book essentially tells two different stories: 1 The history of the show, including the initial controversy over the nudity and language, the difficulty of working with David Caruso, etc. The ISBN number for the softcover edition, which contains extra material not found in the original hardcover including Bill Clark's thoughts on the O.
Simpson case, plus Milch's thoughts on the death of Andy Jr. A prequel to the series, it essentially functions as "the episode before the first episode," following Kelly and Sipowicz around in the weeks before the first episode of the series took place. It also features Laura in a far more prominent role than any episode of the show ever did, and has brief appearances by Fancy, Martinez, and Medavoy. It's very entertaining -- Collins has the characters down pat, so much so that you'll be able to hear Dennis Franz's voice every time Sipowicz utters one of his pithy comebacks.
Collins second Blue novel, Blue Blood ; was published in September of It was originally going to feature Simone and Kelly meeting, but is now a solely Andy and Bobby affair, set shortly after Andy's wedding. In the US it should be available at any large record store. It has probably now got a UK distributor as it has been spotted for sale in various large stores in London without an "Import" sticker on it. Any large record shop anywhere in the world or on the Web should be able to order it for you from the US if you give them the above information.
I always used to say that Blue isn't the type of show to get an elaborate home video release, that it doesn't have the kind of rabid fanbase ala Star Trek or The Simpsons that would buy tape after tape after tape. A second season set came out in August of the same year, and then after a long delay, the third season came out in February of The first two sets are well-packed with extra features, including one commentary on every disc, featurettes and script-to-screen comparisons and have a list price of about 60 dollars, though you can order both for much cheaper if you comparison shop at various web-based DVD retailers.
Milch handles Smits' introduction with "Simone Says. That last disc also includes an hour-long featurette on the changes to the show in year two, plus two short ones on the wedding of Andy and Sylvia and the music of composer Mike Post. There will also be three script-to-screen comparisons, all showing Simone fitting in at his new assignment. Season three was delayed for so long because the first two sets didn't sell well, and Fox was unsure whether to bother continuing the series at all. The resulting collection was clearly done with a lower budget: dual-sided discs, only two commentaries and three short documentaries.
But it's the best or second best season the show ever did, depending on your feelings about Caruso; if there was a season that could stand up without extras, it's this one. A fourth season set is already in the works and could come out as early as this May or June, but if 3 and 4 don't sell well, that could be the ballgame, so vote with your wallet. Over the years, NYPD Blue co-creator David Milch developed an idiosyncratic dialogue style for the show, which eventually came to be known as "Milch-speak.
Milch, like his good friend playwright David Mamet, firmly believes in the power of sentence construction. He feels a line like "Did the Russians mention anything about a girl getting whacked at their club last night? For the first seven seasons of the show, Milch either wrote or rewrote nearly every line of dialogue in every episode. While the names on the scripts changed from week to week, the only writer whose names really mattered were Milch and Bill Clark, who helped him cook up story ideas each week. After one of the staffers put together a few early drafts, Milch would rewrite -- often extensively, sometimes completely -- the script until it satisfied him.
Sometimes, that satisfaction took a while to come. He's been known to often give actors their lines moments before a scene was being filmed and, on at least one occasion, "wrote" an entire episode without actually putting any of the script down on paper. The seventh season finale. For seven years, many observers were convinced that Milch was the show. Sipowicz, originally based on certain aspects of Milch's father, eventually become an alter ego for Milch himself, and some writers from the show, past and present, said Milch was the only one who knew how to write for Andy.
In the meantime, Bochco and the writing staff have had to find their own voice on the show, and that voice usually doesn't use Milch-speak. To the relief of many, the characters began talking in plain, easily-understood English once Milch left. The bulk of the filming was done in Los Angeles, but in the early years, the cast and crew flew out to the Big Apple a few times a season to shoot some exterior shots. As time went on, the trip was cut down to once a year, and in the final season, no trip was made. While the exterior of the 15th stationhouse was actually a real building, a mock-up of it was built in LA. Its radio identifier was, "Field Comm. The backup van was destroyed and audio recordings of tactical channels used at the incident site were lost. One annoyance with the fire systems was the presence of unit ID data bursts.
These constant squawks, heard at the end of transmissions, are decoded at dispatch to identify the calling radio. The annoyance of the data bursts is a trade-off that could help find a firefighter who has been injured or needs help. It also automatically displays the unit ID at the dispatch console. In most systems, it also saves dispatch personnel from typing the unit ID.
They press one key and the calling unit's ID is inserted into the current CAD screen or command line. Recordings show radios were programmed to send unit ID on tactical channels. Radios accept unit ID on a per-channel basis. When mobile or hand-held radios are programmed, the unit ID encoders should be disabled on all channels where the feature is not used. This saves air time for about two to three syllables of speech per push-to-talk press. For example, unless the communications van or chief's vehicles had push-to-talk unit ID decoders, or the channels were recorded for later analysis where unit IDs were decoded from the recordings, the encoders should be turned off for tactical channels to reduce air time used.
It also sounded like some vehicle radios may have had status buttons using the data bursts. If true, the operator presses a button on the vehicle radio which sends a short data burst to dispatch. Dispatch gets the unit identity and the new status from a data decoder. These can cause interruptions in voice traffic but cut down on total air time required to conduct business because they occupy the channel for less time than it takes to say, "Engine fifty on scene. This channel was the primary method of communication in the North tower.
It was a simplex channel. Users complained it would only reach from the lobby to floors in the thirties. Some users who realized Repeater 7 was functional switched to that channel and were afforded better coverage than simplex users on Tactical 1. Audio recordings on the documentary film and NIST analysis show Tactical 1 was overloaded with heavy radio traffic. In contrast, the audio CD of Repeater 7 shows the channel was mostly idle. The commission report said a new portable repeater system had been developed to address shortcomings of Tactical 1 at a large incident.
The system, called, "the post", is carried to an area near the incident and set up for the duration to augment weak signals. The command channel used by officers at the incident was either called Channel 5 or Command 5 in documentation. Documents suggest the channel had a repeater but it was not clear if the repeater was citywide, installed in the Field Comm van, or housed in a battalion chief's vehicle. Recordings of this channel were lost when the Field Comm van was destroyed.
The documentary film and oral history records show the channel being used effectively. That is to say, police units could not communicate with fire units directly by radio. Ambulances could not talk with police units directly by radio. Commission member Lee Hamilton, in several television appearances related to a book on the topic of the WTC incident, reiterated this factually correct view.
An example that was cited by Hamilton: during the incident the Police Department helicopter was unable to communicate with Fire Department units in order to warn them of the towers' imminent collapse. The NIST document suggests the helicopter may have been able to offer several minutes warning. This warning of imminent collapse went out over at least one police radio channel but there is nothing showing it was relayed to other people or channels. In practice, many US helicopters used in emergency services are equipped with radios that allow communications on nearly any conventional two-way radio system, so long as the aircrew know the frequency and associated signaling tones. The radios usually have presets, like a car's broadcast radio, that allow some channels to be configured ahead of need.
While it is technically possible to implement communications across departments, doing so introduces a host of new training and incident command problems. These are problems that would need to be managed in addition to the existing set of issues present at any large incident. The ability to maintain command, and monitor the safety of, groups working at an incident is diminished if a group of firefighters cannot be reached because they've switched over to the EMS channel. This could cause people to be sent to rescue them when there was no need. Similarly, if the Manhattan EMS dispatcher can't reach an ambulance because they are on one of the fire channels, patient care is affected.
In his view, the interoperability desired by the Commission was not needed. These problems are not new to the World Trade Center incident; cross-department and cross-discipline communication has been a hotly contested and long-identified issue. For example, at the Oklahoma City federal building bombing incident , the inability to communicate among departments was also cited as a problem. Firefighters heard an evacuation order on their radio channel because of the reported presence of a second bomb. Police and EMS workers reportedly did not know of the order.
In Hurricane Katrina 's wake, a sergeant in the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries appeared on national television to describe not being able to reach persons from other agencies who were assisting with the recovery. She described seeing the people in a nearby boat but not being able to communicate with them. Even if the technical problems are solved, the issue is more complicated than just adding radio channels or talk groups. It is also a cultural problem. In one local incident, a large number of officers from three police agencies were fielded to search for a violent criminal who had evaded officers from one of the agencies. The officers did not coordinate by switching to a shared radio channel.
After the incident, one participant said the users thought their radios were incompatible and did not understand how the shared channel worked. The problem seems to have been remedied since then. In another instance, a fire agency had thoroughly trained for interoperability scenarios. During an incident where two agencies with different radio channels responded, a decision-maker said personnel from his agency would stay on their own channel. It is not solely a technical problem, but an operational problem as well. Sometimes there are interoperability problems even where a structure for interoperability exists. One view of the Incident Command System is that units across department lines would communicate with their own representative at the command post or division level.
That representative would relay any needs to another department. For example, a fire unit requesting five paramedic ambulances would identify the magnitude of a medical problem to their fire officer at the command post. This request would add to their commander's operational picture of the division or incident command as she called EMS to request the ambulances. Situation awareness is an important part of effective command and is easy to lose at a large incident.
Bypassing incident commanders can contribute to a decomposing of command. One approach to cross-department netting is the capability of some modern trunked systems to provide a function called dynamic regrouping ; a feature that Motorola doesn't support in simplex e. Many agencies with Motorola trunked systems already have this capability but it's hardly ever used; even in a crisis. The difficulty of operating such a system is often too great for poorly educated dispatchers who often have no college — much less any particular training in computers or communications systems — other than the 'cursory' training they receive in a 3 or 5 day class the vendors offer.
The feature allows the dispatch center personnel to send units from different agencies who are responding to the same incident to a common talk group or virtual channel. This assumes the agencies all share a capability to operate over the same trunked radio system, which is rare. In an informal survey of three agencies with trunked systems that included this feature, users at two sites reported they did not think their system included the feature.
A representative from a third site said he " This would suggest, in at least the three agencies contacted, that dynamic regrouping was not valuable. Like other disaster readiness processes, users would have to practice using the feature in order for it to be useful during an incident. Some agencies use commercial two-way radio as an adjunct to their own communications networks. One professional engineering evaluation of public safety radio systems explains that commercial systems such as Nextel's are not built to the same standards of coverage and non-blocking as public safety trunked systems.
Like toy walkie talkies marketed to children, they are usable and helpful for non-urgent communications but should not be considered reliable enough for life safety uses. All systems have a finite capacity. With sufficient channels, there is no need for trunking. There are no 'busy' tones in a conventional repeater system. In the event an individual needs to chime in, he simply waits his turn — just as he would do in a trunked system.
These terminals are connected to the computer-aided dispatch CAD back end or server. They can display text, page through screens describing jobs, and display lists of units assigned to a job. A thorough analysis of data communications is not possible. What recordings show is that data terminals in at least some field units did not work properly during at least a portion of the incident.
At , Division 3 told Manhattan Fire dispatch, referring to the summary screen, "Summary is only giving me a few units. You're going to have to give it to me over the radio. I'm ready to write. The work-around: the Chief had to hand-write the list of units responding. In this one instance, the dispatcher reading the list of about 29 units tied up the Manhattan Fire channel for 53 seconds. During the reading of the list of units responding, one can hear several FDNY units try to interrupt the dispatcher. Their radio traffic was delayed until the entire list was read. This need to read lists of units because of slow or inoperable terminals occurred in at least three or four cases. It's unclear what caused data delays and incomplete screens on the mobile data terminals.
Evidenced by the dispatcher reading the list of units assigned to Division 3, the CAD system was working properly at dispatch positions. At least some field units experienced problems. Possible causes of problems with data terminals in vehicles may have included:. Data terminals are partly purchased and installed to reduce load on dispatch staff and to reduce traffic on voice channels. When they work properly, they have a significant operational benefit. A data outage during an occurrence of high call traffic can quickly overrun dispatch and voice channel capacity in cases where a routine level of calls for service requires both data terminals and voice channels.
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This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Main article: Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks. Archived PDF from the original on October 24, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved May 6, The ethics challenge in public service: a problem-solving guide. ISBN Telephony Online. Archived from the original on December 18, Retrieved March 14, New York: Ballantine. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 15, Retrieved July 8, According to industry experts, it is possible to use cell phones with varying success during the ascent and descent of commercial airline flights, although the difficulty of maintaining a signal appears to increase as planes gain altitude.
Norton and Co. The report is a federal government report created by federal employees in the performance of their jobs. There are no copyright legends or statements inside the publication. Therefore, the entire book is believed to be in the public domain. Can you imagine yourself stopping to ponder the overall situation at the World Trade Center when you're seeing calls waiting to be answered in the ACD queue?
For example, changes to radio network configuration are sometimes overlooked in the cached radios. When an incident happens, it is discovered the cached radios have not been configured to match the radio network changes and don't work. Cached radios often look different from radios in day-to-day use and may have different channels, making their use a training problem. More radios in use would contribute to channel loading, increasing traffic.
These were searched for words and phrases related to radio operations. By the fact that chiefs in the lobby are communicating with others, the radios were at least partially effective. The documentary showed people were getting messages through in at least some cases. Recordings of the Port Authority Fire Repeater 7 channel show technical problems but also show that some units were utilizing the channel effectively.
A coaxial cable is hung along the path. The cable has slots which leak radio signals along its entire length. The Commission report says this has been since remedied by the Port Authority and today all units have capability to work across all areas. When several remote controls are connected to a base station or repeater, the switch disables all but one of them.
The New York Times , August 4, This suggests the possibility of a user interface problem. Any contingency system should, ideally, be always-on, familiar to users, and occasionally tested for readiness unless users have trained to the point that operating the system is second nature. The remote control should have a minimum of settings and switches to avoid confusing the chiefs.
A characteristic of physics is that UHF radios have a shorter wavelength. This allows the signals to fit through smaller building openings, like windows, and to better penetrate into steel buildings. Since the Port Authority UHF system was designed and intended for the WTC site, as opposed to the FDNY system which wasborough- or city-wide, it would be normal for any site-specific system to have better signal coverage. It was not 'adjacent channel selectivity' that desensitized their radios, preventing them from hearing dispatchers' orders to evacuate. It was digital cellular interference; the combined effects of many digital cellular repeaters in lower Manhattan producing interference products that did not exist in when the FDNY radios in use were designed.
An analysis of all the licensed transmitters in the cellular band would likely show sub-harmonic interference products of sufficient amplitude 'on channel', and it was shown at Motorola in February that FDNY product suffered 'desensitization' in the presence of strong, digital cellular interference of a contemporary nature. This EIA rating describes a standardized benchmark used to measure receiver performance.
Selectivity describes the ability of the receiver to receive a signal in the presence of a signal that is near in frequency but on a different, undesired channel. In evaluating this number, higher is better.It's possible that by the random button pressing, a user sent a function tone Summary Of NYPD Red 2 temporarily put the base station in monitor and that's what caused the outside agency's traffic to be Summary Of NYPD Red 2. The firearm Summary Of NYPD Red 2 any ammunition for it must not be easily accessible by Summary Of NYPD Red 2 in the Summary Of NYPD Red 2 driver or passenger area. Brigid Research Paper causes of Ghost Among Us Research Paper with data terminals in vehicles may Analysis Of Journey In Peter Skrzyneckis I Am Malala included:. It's unclear Summary Of NYPD Red 2 caused data delays and incomplete Summary Of NYPD Red 2 on the mobile data terminals.